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are what we eat.
News about Coastal Bermuda Grass for 12
ton yields. March 10, 2019
Denver Museum of Natural History, July, 2016.
Northern Latitudes in Bear Country, At 1,400 lbs. and 57 degrees
North. Kodiak Bears are much bigger than their cousins the Grizzly,
Their diet is balanced and they eat all the time on Kodiak Island
where the bears may not hibernate. The worlds largest carnivore is
the Polar Bear at up to 2,200 lbs.
A true story from Kodiak, during the darker winter months the
Aleutian Brown Bears browse the flora and fauna including the
An Aleutian Brown Bear living on high protein fish and a balanced
super dose of micronutrients from herbs, berries, mammals and
argument, The food supply is critical in natural survival when you
are a carnivore and a herbivore.
Natural selection and competition is where micro-nutrients begin to
show up at the top of the food chain.
For us humans it is not much different,
we are what we eat.
The balance of nutrients and micro nutrients is critical to our
It is no different with our western Cow/Calf operations grazing high
protein Coastal Bermuda Grass.
As stocker feeders go to the finish in the Great Plains feedlots the
highest quality meat is sent to market.
This is a very critical story to our youngest generation and our
connection to the land and the animals.
Keeping the mother cow healthy around the year for another
generation is a top priority.
Our society requires healthy parents and grand-parents to assure the
youngest generation has a great chance.
It all adds up to an most advanced society in the world with the
American farmer/rancher providing the basics.
Highest quality soils with a balance of nutrients has paid
Stocker Feeders on Coastal Bermuda Grass.
Lohn, Texas, a powerful tool is required
to feed cows, to raise brewing barley, to provide fiber, feed and
oil from cotton, and in rotation with winter wheat.
The band spacing
and the Exactrix tool allows TAPPKTS bands to go to the 7 to 8 inch
depth at high speed under No-tillage.
tool is critical to balance the plant nutrients and place those
NPKS and Micro nutrients deep in the soil profile at 7 inch to 8
operates a Mustang Tool Bar with a TAPPS Formulator on Winter Wheat
and Coastal Bermuda Grass at Hugoton, KS in Mid-February, 2019.
USDA-ARS at Tifton Ga.
Glenn W. Burton.
5. Fertilize hybrid bermudagrasses properly.
The following information involving many years of research and
experience with Coastal bermudagrass generally applies equally well
to Tifton 44, Tifton 78 and Tifton 85.
Most coastal plain soils are very low in plant nutrients. Without
fertilizer, Coastal Bermuda will produce about 1.2 to 1.4 tons of
hay and 180 pounds of protein per acre. With 600 pounds of N
(nitrogen) per acre plus adequate amount of other nutrients, Coastal
has produced 9 to 12 tons of hay and 2850 pounds of protein per acre
Table 1. Effect of nitrogen on the yield and protein content of
Coastal Bermuda at Tifton, GA
Hay T/A cut every
4 wks. 6 wks.
Protein cut every
4 wks. 6 wks.
P & K adequate 16% moisture hay
A. Nitrogen. Nitrogen, an
essential component in protein is the fertilizer element that has
the greatest effect on yield of hay and protein.
years, we compared six sources of nitrogen at rates of 100, 200, and
400 lbs. per acre applied to Coastal Bermuda cut 4 times per year at
about 6-week intervals. The average 5-year results from the 400
pound rate are summarized in Table 2.
Five-year effect of nitrogen source (400 lbs./A/yr.) on the yield
and protein content of Coastal Bermuda.
Ammonium nitrate (solid)
Ammonium nitrate (Solution)
Ammonium nitrate (urea solution)
Anhydrous ammonia, the first product of fertilizer nitrogen
manufacture, will always be the cheapest source. Because
anhydrous ammonia is adsorbed on soil particles, it resists leaching
more than nitrate sources.
Rates of anhydrous ammonia that can be applied at one time depend on
the base exchange capacity of the soil and its moisture content. We
successfully applied 400 lbs. of nitrogen (N) per acre to a Tifton
loamy sand by running the applicator feet 7 in. deep. At this rate,
the ammonia spread 6 in. from the point of release to give a core of
treated soil 12 in. in diameter. The ammonia killed the
microorganisms in much of the core which kept them from converting
the ammonia to nitrate nitrogen until they could slowly move back
into the sterilized soil. This overcame leaching losses that could
have occurred had the ammonia N been quickly converted to the
nitrate form. We believe that up to 400 lbs. of N per acre can be
applied at one time with negligible loss on most soils having the
proper moisture content. This would permit one application in March
to satisfy the annual requirements for bermudagrass hay production.
It would reduce application costs where many now apply only 100 lbs.
of N per acre at a time. It would also do a better job of destroying
undesirable soil organisms. G. R. Pirrung, Bainbridge, Ga. reports
that deep placement of anhydrous ammonia has greatly reduced the
fire ants in his hay fields.
In all of our research, we were never able to overcome the lag in
spring response to anhydrous applications. This lag reduced the
yield of the first cutting of hay by 0.5 ton and was found to be due
to the placement of the ammonia in rows 16" apart. Sand culture
studies proved that Coastal Bermuda can utilize ammonia nitrogen
just as well as nitrate nitrogen. Many plants cannot. A broadcast
application of 50 pounds of nitrate nitrogen by mid-March to make
the nitrogen available to all new roots developing from the rhizomes
should overcome this lag.
Surface applied urea nitrogen has been only about 80% as effective
as ammonium nitrate pound per pound of N because the enzyme urease
starts to break down urea to ammonia gas as soon as the urea comes
in contact with the soil. The ammonia will be lost to the air until
the urea moves into the soil by rainfall or irrigation. Our research
proved that heat from the spring burn of Coastal bermuda temporarily
destroyed the urease. Thus, urea can be surface applied for about
two weeks after the spring burn without nitrogen loss to the air.
B. Potassium. Potassium (K),
next to nitrogen, is the fertilizer element most lacking on the
sandy soils of the Southeast. When potassium is deficient, Coastal
develops tiny black or purple spots, its stand thins out, its yield
is reduced and winter injury will be increased. Like most plants,
Coastal will take up more K than it needs for optimum growth. Since
this excess K has no nutritional value and does not increase the
protein content of the grass, it is wasted.
Keep this waste
to a minimum by applying 2 pounds of K20 for every 4
lbs. of N, splitting the annual application, and keeping the soil
potassium at low to medium levels by soil test.
Applying a 4-1-2
(N-P205-K20) ratio fertilizer every
time Coastal bermudagrass is fertilized will usually insure adequate
potassium and avoid luxury consumption of this element where grazing
returns K to the soil in urine and droppings.
For hay production
where no K is returned, we think a 4-1-3 will insure that the grass
receives adequate K if no N is applied without K.
From GJS, Based on this ARS report from Tifton, GA. Glenn W. Burton
To raise yields of 12 ton per acre with 2850 lbs. of protein per
acre it takes 640 lbs. of N. The ratio of 4-1-2 would mean the KTS
would be applied in bands. The new ratio would be
One application of 640 lbs. N would require 128 lbs. P, 246 lbs. of
K and 170 lbs. of Sulfur. 4.4 lbs. of AZn and a micro nutrient mix,
This would require 152 gallons of NH3, N/A -11 gallons per acre from
10-34-0 or 141 gallons of NH3 per acre.
P at 33 gallons of 10-34-0,
K at 82 gallons of KTS® which includes the Sulfur with 2 gallons AZn
and 4 gallons per acre of a micro nutrient mix of balance materials.
How to produce 12 tons per acre of Coastal Bermuda Grass on Sandy
Ground at Hugoton, KS. Some swine nitrogen high in sodium is also
applied and highly inefficient.
Four applications are recommended per year.
1. After Freezing nights. October to Dec. Mustang Band 7 to 8
inch depth in a dormant crop. 35 gals. NH3, 8 gals. APP, 20 gals.
KTS and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per acre.
2. Following spring Green Up and before cows begin grazing,
Mustang 7 to 8 inch depth at April 1 to
April 15. 35 gals. NH3, 8 gals.
APP, 20 gals. KTS and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per
3. Based on Weather and Workload. Mustang 7 to 8 inch deep Band late
Mid-June or early July. 35 gals. NH3, 8 gals. APP, 20 gals. KTS
and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per acre.
4. Based on Workload and Weather Mustang 7 to 8 inch deep band again
in mid to late August. 35 gals. NH3, 8 gals. APP, 20 gals. KTS
and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per acre.
If the climate will not allow 12 tons per acre. If the yields of 6
tons per acre is more likely. Apply twice at period 1 and period 2.
Always apply Deep Bands with the Mustang Opener at 7 to 8 inch depth
on the same AB line during the year with a 3.75 inch offset each
pass. Do not cross band at angles to the previous pass. Try to avoid
concentrating previous bands. Develop new roots outside of old
rooting bands. This produces uniformity and lineal bands with
multiple site access. Cross banding should always be avoided at
Also consider NVDI. The images should produce areas of the field
that have stress and improper irrigation.
Source for VRT-Site Specific.
Also consider Fulvic Acid in the mix with the APP/KTS and micros.
Plan on starting a Gypsum program with high uniformity to counter
act the sodium from the swine effluent. That Gypsum should come from
the Seaboard Group as with others faced with counter acting the high
sodium content of the swine effluent.
You many have an Iron Chlorosis problem.
You may need to keep Iron Chlorosis observations on the burner….thus
micros need to be big with Iron or third product Ferrilene.
No-Till Crop. Avoiding top dress fertilizer increases the perennial
Deep banding techniques reduce surface development of the root mass
or sodding-in at the surface.
Place fertilizer where you want roots. Surgical cuts with Mustang
openers develop roots that can handle drought stress.
Good stands are
better winter survival occurs when Mustang TAPPKTS formulators band
balanced nutrients deeper in the soil.
Mustangs provide surgical cuts using Exactrix extreme double edge
blades assures nutrients are vermiculated
Phosphorus. Phosphorus is very deficient in virgin soils but
may often be in fair supply in old cultivated fields. Phosphorus is
important in animal nutrition and is less likely to be wasted due to
luxury consumption. Much research has shown that 1 lb. of P205
for each 4 lbs. of nitrogen will generally meet the needs of the
grass and the animals that consume it. Adding extra quantities of
phosphorus will not increase protein, carotene, or xanthophyll
content of the forage and some of the extra will be fixed in a form
the grass cannot use.
Secondary elements, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Coastal
Bermuda has need for all of these elements. However, if super
phosphate is used to supply the phosphorus needs of the grass, its
calcium and sulfur requirements will also be satisfied. If not,
substituting ammonium sulfate nitrogen for about 1/6 of the nitrogen
applied should satisfy the sulfur needs of the grass. Liming with
dolomitic limestone will satisfy Coastal’ s needs for calcium and
Minor elements. Coastal bermudagrass has failed to give a
significant response to minor elements applied to sandy soils in
Georgia. Coastal Bermuda is a strong feeder for these elements and
will be able to satisfy its needs from the soil under most
circumstances. Heavy fertilization that will remove 8 - 10 tons of
hay annually will also remove minor elements and can eventually
lower their soil levels to the point that they must be replaced with
Fertilize at the proper time. Coastal bermudagrass needs
fertilizer as soon as spring growth begins. For maximum efficiency,
make the 1st application about
March 15 or 1 week after the last average 32E
temperature. Fertilizer applied much earlier may be lost by leaching
or feeding winter weeds. Apply about 1/4 of the annual fertilizer
March 15 and after the next 3 cuttings on about
June 25, and
Aug 1 to keep yields and protein content of each
cutting more uniform.
Crystalline TAPPS, Exactrix®
Application Chemistry Drives Nutrient Efficiency In All Soil Types.
Who is Glenn W. Burton? Why was he so
outstanding? Was he a good leader of plant breeders and agronomists?
- He started out in Nebraska with his father
farming with horse drawn equipment.
- He lived in Clatonia and Bartley, NE.
- He was sought out by his high school
principal to become a vocational ag teacher.
- At UNL he was advised to become a geneticist
by Franklin Keim, his advisor.
- He is a UNL and Rutgers genetics major that
spent his long USDA career in Tifton GA and yet traveled to 55
foreign countries from 1936 to 2005.
- He was able to watch another famous UNL
geneticist George Beadle of Wahoo, NE receive the Nobel prize in
- Another famous geneticist in his time line
received and the Nobel prize for feeding a hungry planet, Norman
Bourlaug. Glenn W. Burton is considered an equivalent.
- Glenn Burton is the father of Hybrid Coastal
Bermuda Grass(1943) and Hybrid Pearl Millet.
- He help triple yields in Pearl Millet in
India and added an additional 1 billion pounds of live beef to the
American economy in his life time.
- Ronald Regan presented him with the nations
highest award from the National Academy of Science in 1982.
- Hybridization and “sprig” planting allowed a
difficult weed to become a highly valuable plant based on Glenn W.
Burton’s vision and dedication.
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