The Keystone of
Fluid Flow, Liquid State, Anhydrous Ammonia with
2 and 3 inch RT Internal Valves for Exactrix High Pressure Pumping
By Bureau of Reclamation photographer
Hoover Dam, 1935 filling,
The inlet towers for the penstocks were designed to be self-supporting structurally, using a Grate Inflow design that would
prohibit the vortex flow of water.
The Grates allow the water
to flow straight into the tower from the bottom to the top without
spinning around the circumference.
The design increases flow
capacity and reduces turbulence. Screens are added to the Grate
Inlets to filter the flow and keep the larger particulate away from
the turbines impellers.
The Exactrix Grate coupling
devices operate in the same manner. The Grate Coupling reduces the
pressure drop and doubles the flow of NH3.
Of Fluid Flow Anhydrous Ammonia. Liquid State NH3 Flow Discovered.
Moment for Engineered Controls and Exactrix Global Systems.
accidential discovery at Exactrix. An unplanned discovery turns into
a great development.
Two Features Are
Implemented: 1. Valve seat sealing and protection. 2. A doubling
of the NH3 tank flow.
intent of the Exactrix Grate Coupling in 2 inch (3 inch shown on
was to protect the RT internal NH3 tank valve seat from welding
debris, acme gaskets, and float gauge parts that could jam the tank
engineers needed a make the the bottom oultet valve more fool proof
with the added feature of Safety Rope Shut-down and
implementation of a padlock system to lock the tank vale.
The idea of
a screen above the bottom outlet tank valve was simple, but how would
it be serviced? The
project opportunity was how to incorporate the protective 2 inch
NPTF coupling to the tank for weld up. The Exactrix engineering
team had to meet and absolutely exceed the State of Indiana and the
ANSI standard for bottom outlet internal tank valves. The major
accomplishment was how to create a pre-screener to protect the
valve seat. The design must assure sealing without blocking or
limiting flow of NH3 out of tank.
The only way
to move ahead was to do the concept weld-up grate design and then to
test the concept. Exactrix kept testing with water and then
installed the open-ended Grate Coupling into an operating NH3 tank
in the field. This Exactrix Grate Coupling design would have
virtually a zero service requirement.
Surprise, Just the opposite happened of what was planned.
Grate Coupling doubled the flow of water at the flow laboratory in
North Carolina. As a second party peer review with everything to
gain or loose, Engineered Controls was contacted to provide a good
outside review. Dave Stainbrook, a top engineer executive at
Engineered Controls, submitted a test criteria to his engineers to
review the Exactrix Grate Coupling and observe pressure drop and
discovery was amazing. Not only was the NH3 flow not derrated by the Exactrix
Grate, but the flow was doubled at the same pressure drop.
unplanned, the Exactrix Grate Coupling was also acting as an
Anti-Vortex device as well as protecting the valve sealing seat.
This level of
excitement from one of the top engineering firms in the world was a
Eureka moment for both firms.
Explain it and
keep it simple.
pressure is developed at any flow rate, but it is the Expo Point.
This is the point where the NH3 flow can no longer be supplied
liquid due to gas bubbles forming to the pump.
point of pressure drop of NH3 flow is called the Exponential
Pressure Drop Point, normally about 1 psi, or about 3 to 4 feet of
The Expo Point
(in GPM) is created with a magnifying flow vortex for any NH3 valve
at a given flow, even though the NH3 is under tank pressure.
pressure from the vortices is expressed as:
1. NH3 vapor
bubbles in the flow;
2. An undisreable pressure drop below tank pressure allowing the NH3
delivery system to cavitate, and
3. A change in
specific gravity of the NH3.
Mass Flow Meters are smart and they can read the weight of the flow
dynamically, and relay the information as a change in specific
An Exactrix Grate Coupling installed on a 3
inch EC valve, RT3213RT-300.
The ANSI 300 lb threaded mounting flange sets the 3 inch valve
properly in the withdrawal zone of 72 inch to 96 inch diameter
The 2 inch RT valve is installed typically with a 2 inch NPTF
threaded Exactrix Grate Coupling on 41 to 72 inch diameter bulkhead
three locations reveals a success.
In the testing
process, the next step was to install two of the Exactrix Grate
Coupling devices into two 1,000 gallon NH3 tanks on a twin tank NH3
2KC Weigh Master System would double check the tank internal valves
using the Corken positive displacement pump rpm to indicate bubbles
in the flow.
The Expo Point
is determined by the pump RPM which would be 240 rpm at 10 gallons
per minute, 250 rpm at 11 gallons per minute and 350 rpm at 12
gallons per minute.
the system At Expo Point of about 12.5 gallons per minute, the pump
would run away to 450 rpm. Thus, the system of a 1 valve at 1.5
inch diameter has reached its maximum value at 12 gpm.
After 12 gpm,
the top outlet tank valve dip tube or siphon tube implements or
develops a vortex. 1. The vortex is negative pressure in a
Coriolis spiral of the 2.625 diameter tube, 2. This is below NH3
tank pressure, or 3. The flow vortex is1 psi, or greater drop in the
outlet pressure of the tank valve and the valve is flowing two
states, gas and liquid.
This is why
top outlet tank valves are referred to as vaporizer valves in the
propane and agriculture industry.
The Mass Meter
has its own microprocessor intelligence and can weigh the NH3
material to determine if there are bubbles in the flow of NH3. This
is done by reading specific gravity.
NH3 tanks would deliver correctly with both tanks operating, but one
tank would draw down quicker.
twin tank draw down also indicates valve problems with blockage of
one of the tank valves, defective siphon tubes (top outlet tanks),
and poor valve opening.
The top of the
line, Elite CMF-100 mass flow meters are used in the Exactrix Flow
lab acting as the master standard (5 lbs. in 10,000 lbs.) for flow,
and able to read specific gravity and spot vapor bubbles in the NH3
uses F-100 meters to read specific gravity of liquid fertilizer
10-34-0, 12-0-0-26S and 16-0-0-20ZN, in making mobile blends
on the go.
systems set up with F-meters determine the limitations of top oultet
NH3 tank valves, finding the Expo Point in the tank valve.
A good way to
double check the quality of the blend coming from the fertilizer
dealer is accomplished with the 2KM Weigh Master, Mass Flow system.
The R-100 Mass
Flow meters confirm flow and bubbles in the Exactrix system two
ways, with 1. flow number value bounce/LED lighting and 2. Elevated
and variable PD sliding vane pump RPM (Corken 2 and 3 inch pumps.)
After the tank
valve RT-3213RT the components again must be selected with no 90
degree bends. High quality flange couplings are used with safety
paddlock ball valves and Rope Shut down.
tanks have flow limitations and 1.5 inch top outlet tank valves from
Squibb Taylor cannot make delivery of NH3 as a liquid much above 12
tank valves from Squibb Taylor have large 2.625 inch diameter siphon
tubes. The siphon tubes are the problem.
cannot use Anti-Vortex delivery due to the physical problem of
draining the tank. Plus, the tube and valve create excess drag by
the time the flow reaches the hose end valve.
Doubling the Flow with Exactrix Bottom Outlet Valves. The discovery
allowed one tank to make the entire delivery in cold weather on
a 60 foot wide applicator.
Redundant capability allowed the producer to handle cold weather and
meet deadlines. This is much like a twin engine aircraft which must
be able hold altitude with a single engine operating.
It is possible to lose a tank valve and still keep applying at high
speed and flow rate.
production, there are two, not often understood, but critical
factors. What does Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas have that Argentina,
Brazil and Uruguay do not have?
two very interesting factors that drive yields higher and at a much
The answer is simple and it means high yields at low production
cost. Your answer comes in the next Exactrix Broadcast e-mail. If
you cannot wait, you can e-mail or call.
email@example.com (509) 535-9925
The primary factor has something do with the North American Climate.
primary factor is related to winning World War 2 and the excellent
work of the TVA, or Tennessee Valley Authority.
is:_________________________ and _________________________________
Why do top
outlet Anhydrous Ammonia tanks work with other types of NH3
application systems? My neighbor has a Deere 2510 tool bar and he
can run much faster than my Exactrix single disc tool bar.
fertilizer dealer that supplies the NH3 trailer tanks says it is not
his problem. The Raven cold flow systems have been around a long
First of all
you, probably need to sit down with the dealer and explain what you
are trying to do.
The dealer wants to sell more fertilizer and you want to buy less.
The world has changed. Anhydrous ammonia has changed forever. If
the fertilizer dealer wants you for a customer, the fertilizer dealer
needs to change.
Please let the
fertilizer dealer know you are going to be buying Poly Phosphate and
Thio-Sul and you plan on making an additional $60 to $120 per acre,
so you can with ease, pay back your biggest operating cost, the
Explain to the dealer that you would put in the Exactrix NH3 high
flow, bottom outlet tank valves if he would supply the tanks.
The Exactrix NH3 tanks valves are fully approved and exceed all
state and ANSI K-61 standards for safety and reliability.
The tank valves and guards have been fully tested in complete tank
rollovers at high speed.
You can go one step further and set up your own trailer tanks or
team up with another farmer.
application system can run the tool bar fast, because there is not
engineering criteria established for accuracy of NH3 or liquid
streaming flow (Liquid State Delivery).
The Exactrix system can apply at these high speeds with a turbine
flow meter and oversize orifices. An Exactrix 2KT system with
oversize orifices can be ordered.
Remember the first NH3 application systems of 50's delivered NH3
much better than the NH3 applicators of the 70's thru the 90's. Then
Exactrix changed Anhydrous Ammonia forever. How can that be true?
What is the
result you are looking for?
The result you
are looking for is 166% more crop available N and just a little more
yield (9% more bushels per acre is typical for NH3 only. And TAPPS is
about 12% to 20% more net margin and higher depending on soil pH).
Exactrix is one of the most highly tested process controlled systems
ever released to the North American market.
An Exactrix a processor that makes NPKS work better and pay back the
investment quickly, normally within 1 year.
If you desire
to apply 30% to 40% more non-crop available nitrogen and accept a
little less yield, then you are not an Exactrix customer and need to
work closely with the fertilizer dealer to achieve the per acre rate
at high speed.
This high ball
approach with the fertilizer dealer will fail as you begin to
understand the critical nature of uniform 1% CV application in even
band width, and concentration with Variable Rate Site Specific
In fact, many
Deere 2510 machines have been sold back to the dealer because the
bar did not perform, damaged the crop or in fact stripped out the
crop mainly because of old fashioned NH3 tanks, and the poor Raven
application systems that were not alarming about gas state flow.
single disc applicators with Exactrix Technology, using bottom outlet
valves at 60 feet, work very well for indexed application using NH3
The 25% CV application of the high-speed Deere 2510 tool bar, will
dull to nullify the economic effect of VRT application if it is not
This means the VRT application zone cannot be less than 25% CV when
using systems other than Exactrix systems in NH3 or TAPPS.
important. This is the era of precision. A Raven system with a
10% to 35% CV application in all flow zones is the equivalent of
farming with horses, or driving a model T to town.
It is the NH3 lineal band rate (band width) being equal across
the entire field, the port-to-port accuracy and the liquid streaming
flow of liquid Exactrix high pressure NH3, that makes for high yields
very early on the yield curve.
It is not the per acre rate that counts. The per-acre rate only
counts when the fertilizer dealer sends the bill. It is the band
rate in lineal streaming flow at a standard band width that counts.
What is the
secret, that little secret that is the major achievement?
Displacement Pump, not a turbine or centrifugal pump. It is a
pump that can raise NH3 pressure up to 4 times above
the tank pressure with predictable rpm curve.
A Dual Staging Manifold
that handles flows in a 20X range without an orifice change.
A Terminal Orifice
that maintains injection and line backpressure assuring liquid
streaming flows, with the ability to target the flow
into thermal reactions with
acidic fertilizer materials, such as 10-34-0 and 12-0-0-26S or Thio-Sul.
You ask for
it, What are the secondary achievements?
Deere, Raven, Trimble, Ag Leader and other
types of ISO and ISO-Bus controllers work very well with the
and control valves.
The Mass Flow system is optimum for
producers wanting the best information on system application, and
highest levels of crop
Injection Pressures and System Pressures
double check system health and balance.
What is the
major marketing advantage of Exactrix ?
Most single disc openers
can be set up to apply without freezing openers. Yetter, Case,
Deere, Bourgault, Mustang, DMR,
systems allow Mustang openers to apply at speeds to 12
mph without tillage, and operate for $1.50
per acre on 15 inch band centers.
The discovery, that all
commodity crops absolutely prefer Ammonium (NH3) to produce high
yields. Highest yields
are economically achieved with lowest
cost per bushel and less nitrate leaching.
Less is absolutely more,
which is a very unlikely scenario in the world of Agri-business.
just order a 2KT system, it appears to be good enough?
If you have
limited funds or do not believe in the top of the line equipment,
then you should consider the entry level 2KT.
It applies at .75 of the University recommendation and about .82
lbs. N per bushel produced at pH 7 or greater, Irrigated corn
Lately in VRT testing, irrigated corn production, 260 bushel per
acre range. The Mass Flow Exactrix 2KC series as TAPPS applicators
have been achieving the .6 pounds of N per bushel of yield goal or
.66 of the University Recommendation for lbs. of N per bushel in
soils close to or above 7 pH.
systems cost a lot of Money. My neighbor spent over $250,000 for a
40 foot Exactrix high speed Mustang Tool Bar, Can you get the price
a little lower?
Mustang Tool Bars are reliable and speedy.
The first thing you will discover with the proper tank valves speed
goes way up. You can use lower cost systems in the 2KT Mid-range
system. You can set used certified rebuild, 2KC Weigh Master system.
The 30 foot
Mustang Tool bar is rated at 4,000 acres annually and 5,400 acres at
40 feet. Does this lower the investment at 30 feet?
So that the
investment can meet your need based on your farm size, you need to
consider a smaller entry level Exactrix system and 30 foot tool bar,
and run fast at $180,000 total investment.
Keep in mind that you will be paying the entire investment back in
the first year. Irrigated producers deliver $60 to $120 more per
acre to the bottom line. Dryland producers average between $30 and
$60 per acre more net income.
If you have 3,000 acres irrigated, that is $180,000 at the minimum
return. If you have 3,000 acres of dryland that is $180,000 at the
There are also machines in 20 and 30 foot range that can be
considered, since they run so fast you cannot keep up with the pickup
truck pulling the 1,000 gallon trailers to it.
The Mustang tool bar is rated at 12 mph with the Exactrix system, and
Top Outlet tanks are good to go up to 18 gallons per minute with
twin tanks. That is good enough to 36 feet normally.
Exactrix Engineers guideline for NH3 flow.
Set up an Exactrix TAPPS system properly.
Exactrix owners can anticipate 12% more net margin over your
The Exactrix nutrients are 166% more crop available as N, and 200%
more crop available as poly phosphate with low cost Zinc.
Pay back the entire investment the first year.
Less Is More, and it is worth millions of dollars over your farming
Meeting your formulation needs.
Picking your metering systems.
Need more information on advanced crop
Exactrix P51 Mustangs
Video With Kevin Medow and His P51