The Keystone of Fluid Flow, Liquid State, Anhydrous Ammonia with
2 and 3 inch RT Internal Valves for Exactrix High Pressure Pumping Systems.

By Bureau of Reclamation photographer  

Hoover Dam, 1935 filling, The inlet towers for the penstocks were designed to be self-supporting structurally, using a Grate Inflow design that would prohibit the vortex flow of water.

The Grates allow the water to flow straight into the tower from the bottom to the top without spinning around the circumference.

The design increases flow capacity and reduces turbulence. Screens are added to the Grate Inlets to filter the flow and keep the larger particulate away from the turbines impellers.  

The Exactrix Grate coupling devices operate in the same manner. The Grate Coupling reduces the pressure drop and doubles the flow of NH3.  

The Keystone Of Fluid Flow Anhydrous Ammonia.  Liquid State NH3 Flow Discovered.  

A Eureka Moment for Engineered Controls and Exactrix Global Systems.       

A great accidential discovery at Exactrix. An unplanned discovery turns into a great development.  

Two Features Are Implemented: 1. Valve seat sealing and protection. 2. A doubling of the NH3 tank flow.



The original intent of the Exactrix Grate Coupling in 2 inch (3 inch shown on page 3), was to protect the RT internal NH3 tank valve seat from welding debris, acme gaskets, and float gauge parts that could jam the tank valve.  

Exactrix engineers needed a make the the bottom oultet valve more fool proof with the added feature of Safety Rope Shut-down and implementation of a padlock system to lock the tank vale.  

The idea of a screen above the bottom outlet tank valve was simple, but how would it be serviced? The project opportunity was how to incorporate the protective 2 inch NPTF coupling to the tank for weld up.  The Exactrix engineering team had to meet and absolutely exceed the State of Indiana and the ANSI standard for bottom outlet internal tank valves. The major accomplishment was how to create a pre-screener to protect the valve seat. The design must assure sealing without blocking or limiting flow of NH3 out of tank.  

The only way to move ahead was to do the concept weld-up grate design and then to test the concept.  Exactrix kept testing with water and then installed the open-ended Grate Coupling into an operating NH3 tank in the field.  This Exactrix Grate Coupling design would have virtually a zero service requirement.  

Surprise, Surprise, Just the opposite happened of what was planned.  

The Exactrix Grate Coupling doubled the flow of water at the flow laboratory in North Carolina. As a second party peer review with everything to gain or loose, Engineered Controls was contacted to provide a good outside review.  Dave Stainbrook, a top engineer executive at Engineered Controls, submitted a test criteria to his engineers to review the Exactrix Grate Coupling and observe pressure drop and flow.  

The discovery was amazing. Not only was the NH3 flow not derrated by the Exactrix Grate, but the flow was doubled at the same pressure drop. 

Unforeseen and unplanned, the Exactrix Grate Coupling was also acting as an Anti-Vortex device as well as protecting the valve sealing seat.   

This level of excitement from one of the top engineering firms in the world was a Eureka moment for both firms. 

Explain it and keep it simple. 

A negative pressure is developed at any flow rate, but it is the Expo Point. This is the point where the NH3 flow can no longer be supplied liquid due to gas bubbles forming to the pump.

The serious point of pressure drop of NH3 flow is called the Exponential Pressure Drop Point, normally about 1 psi, or about 3 to 4 feet of head.  

The Expo Point (in GPM) is created with a magnifying flow vortex for any NH3 valve at a given flow, even though the NH3 is under tank pressure.  

That negative pressure from the vortices is expressed as:

1. NH3 vapor bubbles in the flow;

2. An undisreable pressure drop below tank pressure allowing the NH3 delivery system to cavitate, and

3. A change in specific gravity of the NH3. 

Micro Motion Mass Flow Meters are smart and they can read the weight of the flow dynamically, and relay the information as a change in specific gravity.

An Exactrix Grate Coupling installed on a 3 inch EC valve, RT3213RT-300. 
The ANSI 300 lb threaded mounting flange sets the 3 inch valve properly in the withdrawal zone of 72 inch to 96 inch diameter bulkhead tanks. 
The 2 inch RT valve is installed typically with a 2 inch NPTF threaded Exactrix Grate Coupling on 41 to 72 inch diameter bulkhead tanks.

Testing at three locations reveals a success.  

In the testing process, the next step was to install two of the Exactrix Grate Coupling devices into two 1,000 gallon NH3 tanks on a twin tank NH3 trailer.  

The Exactrix 2KC Weigh Master System would double check the tank internal valves using the Corken positive displacement pump rpm to indicate bubbles in the flow. 

The Expo Point is determined by the pump RPM which would be 240 rpm at 10 gallons per minute,  250 rpm at 11 gallons per minute and 350 rpm at 12 gallons per minute.  

Bubbles into the system At Expo Point of about 12.5 gallons per minute, the pump would run away to 450 rpm. Thus, the system of a 1 valve at 1.5 inch diameter has reached its maximum value at 12 gpm.  

After 12 gpm, the top outlet tank valve dip tube or siphon tube implements or develops a vortex.  1.  The vortex is negative pressure in a Coriolis spiral of the 2.625 diameter tube, 2. This is below NH3 tank pressure, or 3. The flow vortex is1 psi, or greater drop in the outlet pressure of the tank valve and the valve is flowing two states, gas and liquid.  

This is why top outlet tank valves are referred to as vaporizer valves in the propane and agriculture industry.  

The Mass Meter has its own microprocessor intelligence and can weigh the NH3 material to determine if there are bubbles in the flow of NH3. This is done by reading specific gravity.   

Previously, the NH3 tanks would deliver correctly with both tanks operating, but one tank would draw down quicker.   

This uneven twin tank draw down also indicates valve problems with blockage of one of the tank valves, defective siphon tubes (top outlet tanks), and poor valve opening.

The top of the line, Elite CMF-100 mass flow meters are used in the Exactrix Flow lab acting as the master standard (5 lbs. in 10,000 lbs.) for flow, and able to read specific gravity and spot vapor bubbles in the NH3 system.

Exactrix also uses F-100 meters to read specific gravity of liquid fertilizer 10-34-0, 12-0-0-26S and 16-0-0-20ZN, in making mobile blends on the go.

Exactrix systems set up with F-meters determine the limitations of top oultet NH3 tank valves, finding the Expo Point in the tank valve.

A good way to double check the quality of the blend coming from the fertilizer dealer is accomplished with the 2KM Weigh Master, Mass Flow system.

The R-100 Mass Flow meters confirm flow and bubbles in the Exactrix system two ways, with 1. flow number value bounce/LED lighting and 2. Elevated and variable PD sliding vane pump RPM (Corken 2 and 3 inch pumps.)

After the tank valve RT-3213RT the components again must be selected with no 90 degree bends. High quality flange couplings are used with safety paddlock ball valves and Rope Shut down.  

Top outlet tanks have flow limitations and 1.5 inch top outlet tank valves from Squibb Taylor cannot make delivery of NH3 as a liquid much above 12 gpm.  

Top outlet tank valves from Squibb Taylor have large 2.625 inch diameter siphon tubes. The siphon tubes are the problem.  

Siphon Tubes cannot use Anti-Vortex delivery due to the physical problem of draining the tank.  Plus, the tube and valve create excess drag by the time the flow reaches the hose end valve.


Doubling the Flow with Exactrix Bottom Outlet Valves. The discovery allowed one tank to make the entire delivery in cold weather on
a 60 foot wide applicator.

Redundant capability allowed the producer to handle cold weather and meet deadlines. This is much like a twin engine aircraft which must be able hold altitude with a single engine operating.

It is possible to lose a tank valve and still keep applying at high speed and flow rate. 


Frequently Asked Questions.

In corn production, there are two, not often understood, but critical factors. What does Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas have that Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay do not have?

There are two very interesting factors that drive yields higher and at a much lower cost.
The answer is simple and it means high yields at low production cost.  Your answer comes in the next Exactrix Broadcast e-mail.  If you cannot wait, you can e-mail or call.  (509) 535-9925

The primary factor has something do with the North American Climate.

The second primary factor is related to winning World War 2 and the excellent work of the TVA, or Tennessee Valley Authority. 

Your Answer is:_________________________ and _________________________________  

Why do top outlet Anhydrous Ammonia tanks work with other types of NH3 application systems? My neighbor has a Deere 2510 tool bar and he can run much faster than my Exactrix single disc tool bar.

The fertilizer dealer that supplies the NH3 trailer tanks says it is not his problem.  The Raven cold flow systems have been around a long time.  

First of all you, probably need to sit down with the dealer and explain what you are trying to do.
The dealer wants to sell more fertilizer and you want to buy less.

The world has changed. Anhydrous ammonia has changed forever. If the fertilizer dealer wants you for a customer, the fertilizer dealer needs to change.

Please let the fertilizer dealer know you are going to be buying Poly Phosphate and Thio-Sul and you plan on making an additional $60 to $120 per acre, so you can with ease, pay back your biggest operating cost, the fertilizer bill.
Explain to the dealer that you would put in the Exactrix NH3 high flow, bottom outlet tank valves if he would supply the tanks.
The Exactrix NH3 tanks valves are fully approved and exceed all state and ANSI K-61 standards for safety and reliability.
The tank valves and guards have been fully tested in complete tank rollovers at high speed.
You can go one step further and set up your own trailer tanks or team up with another farmer.

Any ammonia application system can run the tool bar fast, because there is not engineering criteria established for accuracy of NH3 or liquid streaming flow (Liquid State Delivery).
The Exactrix system can apply at these high speeds with a turbine flow meter and oversize orifices. An Exactrix 2KT system with oversize orifices can be ordered.

Remember the first NH3 application systems of 50's delivered NH3 much better than the NH3 applicators of the 70's thru the 90's. Then Exactrix changed Anhydrous Ammonia forever. How can that be true?

What is the result you are looking for?

The result you are looking for is 166% more crop available N and just a little more yield (9% more bushels per acre is typical for NH3 only. And TAPPS is about 12% to 20% more net margin and higher depending on soil pH).
Exactrix is one of the most highly tested process controlled systems ever released to the North American market. 
An Exactrix a processor that makes NPKS work better and pay back the investment quickly, normally within 1 year.

If you desire to apply 30% to 40% more non-crop available nitrogen and accept a little less yield, then you are not an Exactrix customer and need to work closely with the fertilizer dealer to achieve the per acre rate at high speed.

This high ball approach with the fertilizer dealer will fail as you begin to understand the critical nature of uniform 1% CV application in even band width, and concentration with Variable Rate Site Specific application.

In fact, many Deere 2510 machines have been sold back to the dealer because the bar did not perform, damaged the crop or in fact stripped out the crop mainly because of old fashioned NH3 tanks, and the poor Raven application systems that were not alarming about gas state flow.  

Deere 2510 single disc applicators with Exactrix Technology, using bottom outlet valves at 60 feet, work very well for indexed application using NH3 only.
The 25% CV application of the high-speed Deere 2510 tool bar, will dull to nullify the economic  effect of VRT application if it is not Exactrix equipped.
This means the VRT application zone cannot be less than 25% CV when using systems other than Exactrix systems in NH3 or TAPPS.

Accuracy is important. This is the era of precision. A Raven system with a 10% to 35% CV application in all flow zones is the equivalent of farming with horses, or driving a model T to town.
It is the NH3 lineal band rate (band width) being equal across the entire field, the port-to-port accuracy and the liquid streaming flow of liquid Exactrix high pressure NH3, that makes for high yields very early on the yield curve.
It is not the per acre rate that counts. The per-acre rate only counts when the fertilizer dealer sends the bill.  It is the band rate in lineal streaming flow at a standard band width that counts.  

What is the secret, that little secret that is the major achievement?

1.   A Positive Displacement Pump, not a turbine or centrifugal pump. It is a pump that can raise NH3 pressure up to 4 times above
      the tank pressure with predictable rpm curve.

2.  A Dual Staging Manifold that handles flows in a 20X range without an orifice change.

3.  A Terminal Orifice that maintains injection and line backpressure assuring liquid streaming flows, with the ability to target the flow
         into thermal reactions with acidic fertilizer materials, such as 10-34-0 and 12-0-0-26S or Thio-Sul.

You ask for it, What are the secondary achievements?

1.       Deere, Raven, Trimble, Ag Leader and other types of ISO and ISO-Bus controllers work very well with the Exactrix Flow-meters
        and control valves.

2.       The Mass Flow system is optimum for producers wanting the best information on system application, and highest levels of crop
        available N.

3.       Injection Pressures and System Pressures double check system health and balance.  

What is the major marketing advantage of Exactrix ?

1.       Most single disc openers can be set up to apply without freezing openers. Yetter, Case, Deere, Bourgault, Mustang, DMR,

2.       Exactrix Injection systems allow Mustang openers to apply at speeds to 12 mph without tillage, and operate for $1.50
        per acre on 15 inch band centers.

3.       The discovery, that all commodity crops absolutely prefer Ammonium (NH3) to produce high yields. Highest yields
        are economically achieved with lowest cost per bushel and less nitrate leaching.

4.       Less is absolutely more, which is a very unlikely scenario in the world of Agri-business. 

Why not just order a 2KT system, it appears to be good enough?

If you have limited funds or do not believe in the top of the line equipment, then you should consider the entry level 2KT.
It applies at .75 of the University recommendation and about .82 lbs. N per bushel produced at pH 7 or greater, Irrigated corn production.
Lately in VRT testing, irrigated corn production, 260 bushel per acre range. The Mass Flow Exactrix 2KC series as TAPPS applicators have been achieving the .6 pounds of N per bushel of yield goal or .66 of the University Recommendation for lbs. of N per bushel in soils close to or above 7 pH.  

These systems cost a lot of Money. My neighbor spent over $250,000 for a 40 foot Exactrix high speed Mustang Tool Bar, Can you get the price a little lower?

These Exactrix Mustang Tool Bars are reliable and speedy.
The first thing you will discover with the proper tank valves speed goes way up. You can use lower cost systems in the 2KT Mid-range system. You can set used certified rebuild, 2KC Weigh Master system.

The 30 foot Mustang Tool bar is rated at 4,000 acres annually and 5,400 acres at 40 feet. Does this lower the investment at 30 feet?

So that the investment can meet your need based on your farm size, you need to consider a smaller entry level Exactrix system and 30 foot tool bar, and run fast at $180,000 total investment.

Keep in mind that you will be paying the entire investment back in the first year. Irrigated producers deliver $60 to $120 more per acre to the bottom line. Dryland producers average between $30 and $60 per acre more net income.
If you have 3,000 acres irrigated, that is $180,000 at the minimum return. If you have 3,000 acres of dryland that is $180,000 at the maximum annually. 

There are also machines in 20 and 30 foot range that can be considered, since they run so fast you cannot keep up with the pickup truck pulling the 1,000 gallon trailers to it.

The Mustang tool bar is rated at 12 mph with the Exactrix system, and Top Outlet tanks are good to go up to 18 gallons per minute with twin tanks. That is good enough to 36 feet normally.

Follow the Exactrix Engineers guideline for NH3 flow.
Set up an Exactrix TAPPS system properly.
Exactrix owners can anticipate 12% more net margin over your competition.
The Exactrix nutrients are 166% more crop available as N, and 200% more crop available as poly phosphate with low cost Zinc.
Pay back the entire investment the first year.
Less Is More, and it is worth millions of dollars over your farming career.

PG Farms video.

Meeting your formulation needs.  

Picking your metering systems.  

Need more information on advanced crop production?

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