Exactrix Winter Canola, Fall Establishment,
Winter Hardiness, Fertilizer Practices.
Winter Canola On The Southern Great Plains. Frequently Asked
regarding the fall start and winter hardiness of Winter Canola and
How do they do
that? Seed production in the Pacific Northwest.
Hybrid Canola with 6 male rows, (7.5 inch) on a 60 inch alley.
Production techniques are different as risk mitigation is very
important for this type of production.
The Breeder is looking for highest quality seed. The least amount
conflicting test weight problems. Green seed is avoided by driving
the plants to ripen evenly. Planters are effective with expensive
breeder seed. Drilling is also effective.
Notice the residue spread on the back of the combine. The spread
allows for the Inspector and Breeder to confirm the loss of valuable
hybrid seed in a concentrated area.
Utilization of Nutrients in the male rows is not very efficient.
Just like hybrid seed corn the male rows contribute to nitrogen
leaching problems and thus the need for a scavenger cover crop like
The rotation will be back to potatoes so the use of heavy tillage is
required to dissect residue in the breeder row alleys.
Seed Potatoes which is a five year rotation performs very well on
1. Is Winter Canola an insurable crop in Kansas and the Great
2. Is the crop insurable with a planter on 20 or 30 inch seed row
spacing on the Great Plains? Yes.
3. Will Winter Canola lead to higher yields in following crops?
Yes in every case and about once every three years in rotation works
4. Is the rotation of winter canola very important? It is
very important, At least three years separation and always following
a cereal crop. No rotation on sunflowers or soybeans. Peas are
considered acceptable. The most powerful rotation in North America
is RR or Liberty Link Spring Canola on Spring Wheat or Durum with
barley or peas following spring wheat. On the Southern Great Plains,
Winter Canola following two years of winter wheat is a good choice.
In irrigated production a double crop can be considered, of Winter
Wheat, Winter Canola, Milo double crop, followed by corn or
triticale/Sudan sorghum, double crop. In southwestern Kansas
irrigated corn can be taken off early enough to allow establishment
of winter canola seeded in early October. Double crop of Winter
Canola is a major advantage.
Seed production of Hybrid
Spring Canola Seed in Washington State.
5. Is Blackleg and White Mold a problem? Yes and it is
important to avoid volunteer canola. Trucks must be tarped with no leakage
and the roadsides should not propagate the volunteer. The importance of
controlling the crop harvesting, delivery, and the volunteer was recently
reemphasized in Washington State. Kill it dead on roadsides and volunteer
6. Is there an optimum seeding date? Yes and it varies with altitude and
the ability of the crop to optimize the tap root size and the growing
point vigor before winter freezing conditions. The seeding date can be
sourced from your seed supplier or KSU and OSU websites.
7. What is considered an acceptable stand? In the Pacific Northwest an
acceptable stand is 98% emerged in 7 to 10 days. If moisture is not in the
seeding zone producers should not seed or dust in the crop…the crop must
emerge on the Great Plains immediately and no delay in the race with the
winter hardiness clock. All stands must be 98% emerged in 7 to 10 days. If
seeding conditions are warm at 70 to 80 degrees the plants will emerge in
8. Can water injection be used? Yes and especially true with a planter on
20 or 30 inch spacing. Water injection may be long term critical to stand
establishment on sandy soils. Fluidized Calcium Sulfate can be included
with the water to improve flocculation and soil life in the germination
area. Sulfur also helps with oil and protein of the seed.
9. What happens if weeds have not been controlled in dryland wheat
Chemfallow? Basically Chemfallow must be perfect at 99% weed control. If
weeds are able to pull moisture out the seed zone the Canola crop will not
come. Then water injection is required. So it is best to carry out a good
Chemfallow program following the dryland wheat harvest…there will be more
than like two and three applications to control weeds prior to planting
dryland Winter Canola on dryland wheat residue.
10. I have heard stories about seed
size variation being 2.2 times. So how do producers seed the crop?
Establishing the crop is definitely based on population. The variation is
60,000 to 140,000 plants per lb. based on studies at Idaho and Washington
State. In dryland production, the planters like Monosem have a finished
emerge stand in the range of 4 to 5 inches spacing with either 15, 20 inch
or 30 inch rows. The plant will produce healthy tap roots with this
A good place to start in dryland is 44,000 on 30 inch and 66,000
on 20 inch spacing. A 10 inch spacing drill would be 132,000 in dryland.
The goal is to space the plant about 4 to 5 inches apart. Spacing to 8
inch will produce a good economic yield in the spring stand evaluation.
Irrigated production seed population can be increased 125% on supplemental
and 150% on full irrigation. No long term data is available as to any
advantage to planting at heavier plant populations on irrigation. Row
Spacing seems to make little difference in yield. Plant spacing and
resulting plant vigor seems to make the most difference
11. What is the correct seed depth? Winter Canola can be
seeded deeper than spring Canola based on soil temperature. In No-tillage
seed beds the producer should seed about 1 inch in depth and no deeper
than 1.5 inch with a drill single disc opener or a planter. Do not pack on
top of seed row when seeding deep. Single disc openers that do not pack on
top of row should be used when seeding deep.
Canola Seed, reduces risk and raises yield potential.
12. Does No-tillage
seeding have an advantage? Yes and no, since the chance of
getting a good stand in No-tillage seeding is very good since the
moisture level is more managed. Soil active chemicals such as SU’s
and Atrazine can be a problem whereby tillage might dissipate the
soil active chemicals but loose the soil moisture for a stand. There
is one variety of Winter Canola that can tolerate SU soil chemical
problems. Chemical carryover is a limiting factor in winter
hardiness. Properly set and selected row cleaners may allow for
stronger stands and less interference with SU carryover.
13. Planter or Drill, I have two choices and I would like
to try both or should I concentrate on one machine? It would
appear that in Kansas and Great Plains conditions a planter equipped
with row cleaners on 20 or 30 inch centers has a rather significant
14. Why is a planter better? The planter properly set
up with row cleaners may allow for a lower crown set. So winter
hardiness appears to be better with a proper planter. The challenge
is to keep the residue away from the emerging plant so the
vegetative state crown does net set up high in the residue. This is
the current theory that residue produces a high crown set. So a
drill using single disc opener might not move enough residue away
from the row. A shank opener might be better like a contour shank
drill offered typically by Canadian manufacturers.
Planter with the ability to singulate on 15 inch rows.
seed population and spacing better with a planter? Yes and this is
the major point of lowering risk and keeping winter canola in the
This was proven by Conservapak over many years. The Conservapak
metering system (non-singulating but highly accurate row to row) was
dropped by Deere when the 1870 was introduced. Seed costs can be
reduced to the point that the winter Canola seed cost competes with
winter wheat seed costs. The plant produces top yields at 4 to 5
inch spacing and this is simply not possible with the controlled
spillage of air-seeder towers and central meter delivery systems.
Thus when a RR license is involved the opportunity of planter
precision spacing is realized.
16. What about metering Canola seed?
There are some good choices in metering discs. The 90 cell discs appear
to be good for Canola. Deere NT planters have the correct metering
plates available through RRV designed plates. Note: Do not use
plates that are not specifically designed for Canola Seed.
17. Should the fall seeded field be pre-irrigated? Yes,
all the way to 6 feet if you have the soil depth. The tap root
determines the yield potential. The Tap root must not hit dry soil
before winter sets in to maximize the winter Canola yield under
pivots. The irrigation schedule needs to be adjusted and possibly no
water would be needed in the spring if the TAPPS and TAPPKTS
nutrients are deep banded. Nutrients should not be applied with a
pivot since the goal is deep rooting. Shallow root colonies do not
produce the highest yields. The deep banding of NH3, APP/ATS and
Zinc into the growing crop would be made at a timeline of just
before dormancy in the fall and during dormancy in the winter.
Spring banding into growing winter canola is not optimum.
provides bio-fumigation and improved yields. A uniform stand is
important with a uniform spread of residue. The Canola pod residue
spreading should be over the full combine width. The threshed pods
are high protein and similar to the seed in protein content. Spread
the residue evenly across the entire machine width.
1. Is it critical to use a single disc banding tool?
Yes, The plant requires deep bands to 7 inch depth to get the
maximum yield. The plant prefers ammonium, phosphate and lots of
sulfur to make oil content in the 42%to 46% range. It is not
possible for the Canola plant to be hardy if Solution 32 is applied
to the plant in the fall. Solution 32 allows the cell wall to
elongate and weaken. Freezing conditions thus breaks down the cell
wall and desiccates the plant.
Winter Hardiness is best achieved by avoiding nitrate and urea
nitrogen. The ammonium state can be immediately absorbed by the
plant and NH3 is immediately crop available. NH3 or ammonium does
not produce as much elongation as compared to nitrate or 32-0-0
sources. Ammonium application also has the lowest carbon footprint
and energy requirements to build the material at 82.4% ammonium.
Building Blocks to high oil content and protein, NH3 and Sulfur,
Lysine a key Amino Acid utilizes NH3 directly. Using Amino Acids to
build Protein and Oil content requires elevated rates of sulfur.
2. Why does the
plant prefer NH3? Ammonium immediately makes amino acids and does
not require a second step as when nitrate is utilized. The protein
and oil develops in the plant with a good supply of Ammonium Thio-sulfate
sulfur or Thio-sul®12-0-0-26S. Ammonium Poly Phosphate, 10-34-0 or
11-37-0 helps to develop better root systems to absorb more moisture
deep. NH3 or ammonium when late fall applied has the highest
potential for top yields since the tap roots can develop deeper into
the profile without interference or toxicity as found with 30 inch
banding of urea in strip-tillage. The timing of ammonium, NH3 or
82.4-0-0 is critical to top yields by side dressing the crop in late
fall on during dormancy growth period of the winter months. During
dormancy winter wheat and winter canola roots grow and extended to
deeper depths at slower rates since the ground does not typically
freeze with No-tillage. A No-tillage snow trap is absolutely
critical to top yields on the Great Plains.
nitrogen fertilizer is better when establishing the biennial winter
Canola crop. Why? It is best to let the crop scavenge the
residual N and PKS in the soil and keep the plant at a lower level
of vegetative growth to assure hardiness. If you wanted to assure a big
growth and resultant winter kill the producer would apply solution
32-0-0, or 28-0-0 with a pivot during the fall establishment. Winter
Kill is assured with excessive vegetative growth from nitrate and
4. Does TAPPS, TAPPKTS, with Ammoniated Zinc require some
adjustments? For Dryland 40 bushels per acre production the
recommendation and nutrient package is about double to triple rates
of Thio-Sul® compared to wheat to help make oil content higher and
higher seed protein.
Currently more work needs to be done with KTS
since the plant nutrient has promise in improving hardiness on most
soil types. The dryland 40 bushel recommendation is about 12% or the
gross income (2016) using TAPPS. NH3, 37.5 lbs N, 3 gallons of APP
or 11.4 lbs. P and 4.2 lbs N, and 10 gallons of Thio-sul® 28.9 lbs.
S and 11.lbs N, total Ammonium applied is 52.2 lbs N.
The critical aspect of the
formulation is the application period. Nutrients need to go on when
the winter Canola tap root is about 2 feet in depth. This is
normally about 45 days after planting. Band the nutrients with
Mustang single disc openers on 12 inch to 20 inch band centers with
15 inch banding centers being the most common. Band to 7 inch depth
to allow for maximum root targeting.
TAPPS Tri-Ammonium Poly
Phosphate Sulfate, Zn.
Application of TAPPS and TAPPKTS at 1% CV at
highest levels of manufactured uniformity using Mass Flow meters.
TAPPS Tri-Ammonium Poly Phosphate Sulfate, Zn. Ammonium as NH3 is
combined with Ammonium Poly Phosphate and Ammonium Thio-Sulfate or
Thio-sul® and Ammoniated Zinc in a uniform stream flow
TAPPKTS includes the 4th material, Potassium Thio-Sulfate or KTS®.
Advanced Canola producers have been using KTS® to improve oil
content. Winter Hardiness can be improved with a balanced NPKS&Zn
Low cost, Ammoniated Zinc is utilized since it is compatible with
Poly Phosphate which is 70% poly and 30% ortho. Ammonium Poly
Phosphate 10-34-0, 11-37-0 is purposely designed to carry the
Ammoniated Zinc 16-0-0-20Zn in the polymer section of the 10-34-0.
Humic Acid seems to have little to no positive economic effect when
included into the highly uniform TAPPS band at 8.5 to 9 pH.
The same is true of the polymer Avail since the high pressure
Exactrix ammonization at a 1% CV application allows the improved
performance of placed P in calcareous soils.
canola, Strathmore, Alberta, Canada
5. I have read about winter Canola yields to 8,200 lbs per
acre and I want to make sure that I can achieve that? You are a
dreamer and this is probably not going to happen as those yields
come from test plots with deep loess Palouse soils and 12 month
black summer and chemical fallow programs. But it is certainly
possible to hit 100 bushels per acre with irrigated winter Canola.
The problem is normally the weather and soil depth being the major
6. So what is the proper rate of application for irrigated
center pivots with 4,200 lb yield goal. Follow the Exactrix
guidelines at 12% of the gross. Thus 84 bushels per acre should
produce a net income of about $600 per acre at $7.25 per bushel.
About $72.00 per acre is the operating budget in 2016 economic
Don’t forget, it takes a lot of sulfur to make yield, protein and oil
content. The risk of not making oil content is also a management
7. With Winter Canola, Does Single Pass seeding and banding
application work just as good as two pass seeding and application?
No, Such machines as the Deere 1895 or 1870, The Bourgault 3710
single disc, 3310 contour drill or the Case Flexicoil Stealth Opener
provide opportunity to band all nutrients and seed making the
farming operation, machinery deficient and operator sensitive.
Timing of the crop nutrients in a biennial crop production mode
has the highest level of performance and maximum level of nutrient
efficiency when nutrients are late fall banded after the crop is
singulated seed placement with a Monosem planter on 15 inch, Nampa,
8. Why is snow key to top
nutrient uptake? North America is one of the few places in
the world where snow is used to make ammonium more functional to the
crop. In No-till
the famous snow trap allows the snow to distribute uniformly and
keep the soil warm enough to prevent freezing. Thus there is a
slow perk of melt-water into the soil. A uniform perk of melt-water
assures a high quality crop potential. Ammonium is soil stable as
NH4 and when combined with P205 and S and S04 forming TAPPS. The
crystalline TAPPS or TPPKTS becomes more stable with Ammoniated Zinc
added to assure the proper metals balance in the band. The nitro
ammonias and nitrobacteria find it hard to proliferate in 8.5 to 9
pH band of crystallized nutrients.
Thus the very narrow, low
exposure, TAPPS or TAPPKTS bands stay in place or droop about 12
inches in the profile with a winter snow fall of about 70 to 80
inches. Nitrate fertilizers, 32-0-0, 28-0-0, will
easily move out the root zone and follow the wetting front into the
drinking water, streams, rivers and gulfs. This is why nitrate
32-0-0 is never used in fall crop production. Ammonium is soil
stable when applied as TAPPS or TAPPKTS.
Great Plains producers know the value of a good snow
trap in No-tillage production of winter wheat. It works just as well
or better for winter Canola. Canola roots grow in the winter months
in the non frozen soils of the Southern Great Plains.
9. What about Boron? Yes, it is
required at the reproductive bloom stage and is normally applied
with the fungicide at first petal drop. Probably can also be
considered in the band but at very low rates to be safe with the
toxic material. The timing of Boron in the reproductive mode is
proven to be an adder to higher profits.
10. What about honey bees?
Yes, Honey Bees help and bring on a higher yield (5%) and typically
well worth the minimum hassle. The insecticides are the problem.
Irrigated production for sure should use honey bees just like the
breeder who made the hybrid canola seed. Honey bees are important
for excellent pollination in an open pollinated crop and it is
important to keep their industry growing. Hybrid Canola seed
absolute requires honey bees for pollination of the sterile seed.
SHB producing high quality seed for the Hybrid Canola seed market.
Remote mountain valleys assure a high quality seed crop and little
interference with the pollinators getting the job done.
11. What seems to be the most
misunderstood part of raising winter Canola? The producers lose
focus on the timing of nutrients since they may not have the correct
equipment. How to select nutrients is very critical. How to produce
high oil content to assure a premium for his Canola is not well
understood until the producer sees the settlement check from ADM or
Vittera. Treat the crop as cover crop initially. Back off on the
nutrients until you know you have a winner. The crop must make high
protein and oil and it will with excellent fertilization techniques
for Exactrix TAPPS.
12. Can Nutrients be applied in the seed row?
Ammoniated Nutrients should not be applied in the seed row. This is
especially true on high pH soils when the soils are at warm
temperatures from 50 degrees F to 80 degrees F.
13. How effective is Rotational Band Loading? Allowing
access to previous placed Exactrix TAPPS and TAPPKTS bands in
No-tillage farming makes a big difference. NPKS efficiency goes up
by a factor of 15% per year for at least 3 years is the old bands
are not disturbed. At highest levels of efficiency which is TAPPS
vermiculated bands using Mustang openers the placed P is 25% to 30%
utilized by the plant. So No-tillage and deep banding to 7 inches
plays a big role in raising soil test P and improving crop yields.
Rotational Band Loading is long known for its value in improving
soil test P in Kansas conditions.
Roll the Dice Twice.
1. If the crop does not make it through the
winter you have a cover crop that has left a high quality, residual
place to plant a spring crop.
2. Invest about $8.00 per acre for seed and look for a 98% stand in
7 to 10 days. Treat the crop initially as a cover crop with low
3. Invest in TAPPS or TAPPKTS fertilizer only when a stand is
assured in about the 45th day after planting. Ammonium is always the
winner at the low rate.
4. If the crop does make it into the spring figure out why and come
back with a great spring crop and pickup your insurance check.
5. Never give up, keep trying until you figure out the cultural
practice and always have a backup plan.
Regulators are being considered for Winter Canola in about the 25th
to 30th day after planting to thicken the cell wall and
slow down the vegetative growth. Pix, Cerone, Palisade are such
growth regulators that may or may not work and are definitely not a
labeled practice. Most producers should be able to produce good
winter hardiness without a growth regulator if they follow the above
guidelines. Ammonium is considered a functional growth
regulator when combined with APP and ATS stopping or limiting the
conversion to negative valence nitrate which enhances winter kill by
producing a thin cell wall. Urea is not ammonium.
Goodland, KS, at the ADM crushing facility which has
several receiving stations in Kansas. The crush goes primarily to
the large dairy farms in western Kansas and Colorado.
residue spread with a New Holland Twin Rotor. Notice the shatter
from hail. About 15 bushel was shattered in the row . The field
averaged 60.44 bushels per acre across the scales.
in the water basin and the headwaters of the north fork of the
river, artesian springs at 3,800 feet support the headwaters of the
Republican river. Springs are based on this field at higher 4,200 foot
elevation and providing the head pressure of the springs.
This is typical of the
sand hills of Nebraska and Colorado.
pickup investment is about $20,000.
Banding Exactrix tool bar investment on 40 feet with Mustang
openers, a $180,000 to $275,000 investment. A key component in
improving yields, improving winter hardiness, and reducing risk.
Colorado at 4,200 feet. DeKalb variety. Winter Canola swath with
damaged pods from hail. A surprising good crop and initially
established as a cover crop only.
investment, Banding into all soil types and residue situations with
Mustang P-51 CUE openers. No-tillage banding to 7 inch depth.
Vermiculated bands of TAPPS and TAPPKTS. 30 feet on 15 inch band
A powerful tool
in western Kansas since almost all crops produced in double crop or
annual crop mode are not legumes. Banding low cost NH3 is required
to make maximum profits.
developing a banding tool bar in the same design for soybeans. The
key point is geometry of the non-nitrogen units….as crop critical
nutrients and inputs in relation to the rainfall timing and pattern.
McDon 40 foot
Swather Head with Roto Shear. A harvest investment in the $150,000
is also working well in certain areas. Reglone® is required to ripen
Loading drives P uptake and long term efficiency.
Vermiculated Banding Improves Soil Test P For Future Crops.
Deep 7 inch,
No-tillage banding has changed No-tillage farming with advent of
P-51 C Mustang openers.
Banding of TAPPS and TAPPKTS. Hydra Hume and Avail are no longer
included in the chemistry due to the high efficiency of the band
when triple super ammoniated.
Seed Potatoes on
every 5th irrigated acre with Canola leading the highly
profitable seed potatoes. Hybrid Seed Canola is long term profitable
in the advancement of seed production.
highest quality seed in a critical watershed of a populated mountain
river valley. The environmental aspect of canola and potato seed
production must also be considered in keeping the rivers and water
A good location
for certified Westbred
wheat. Following Canola with field wide averages of 174
bushels per acre with the variety Jet.
Banding into growing winter wheat. Banding into growing wheat and
canola is a time proven technique in Kansas and Oklahoma.
In Oklahoma up
to 180% higher rates of TAPPS and TAPPKTS are applied during winter
crop dormancy to assure the following double crop has adequate
nutrients in dryland production.
The TAPPS bands
are elevated and designed to carry-over into double crop dryland
At some point
the TAPPS bands become toxic so it is important to not raise the
application rate too high and yet the rate must be managed for the
following dryland summer crop.
Loading in No-tillage further allows reduction in nutrients over
Exactrix Banding Tool bars.
Red or Green, it's a good machine!
"Big Red" #1
"Canola harvest scene." To see the video go to