Less Winter Wheat And More Winter Canola, The Market Says So.

 Raising More Canola with Less Fertilizer Input.

ADM oil seed crushing plant, Goodland, Kansas, At Exit 12, Interstate 70.  

A real business opportunity for Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado producers. 

The Winter Canola crop insurance program is driving the interest for sure along with a much better profit picture of Canola compared to wheat. 

Crop Insurance is available in Kansas.  However, Colorado does not have canola crop insurance and the program is presently not available for Nebraska. 

This Goodland, KS, Strip Tillage irrigated field could be a major technical development for, Winter Hardiness, a  breakthrough for the adjoining states. 

The standing Winter Wheat stubble is key…for the Winter Canola making it through the winter with quick maturity from TAPPS. 

TAPPS has double the phosphate efficiency, allowing the crop to have potential for high protein or high oil content,  and double cropping can be considered.  

Keep the Nitrate away from the crop, no 32-0-0.  

Exactrix TAPPS.  “Enhanced Ammonium N nutrition is a real plus”, as Dr. Bert Bock  would say, “This is what the plant wants, Ammonium with protein building Thio-sul® that provides S as well as N and keeps N in the ammonium form longer.”  Bert is a former scientist with the TVA at Muscle Shoals and an expert on Nitrogen.

Winter Canola has a deep root system (10 to 12 feet) with high yield potential and requires less nutrient per bushel produced than Spring Canola.  Do not over-fertilize Winter Canola for maximum winter hardiness and best economics.

Winter Canola’s deep root system is a nitrogen scavenger finding the deeper soil profile a great place to explore the primordial soil horizon.  

The soils are deep windblown deposits at Goodland, KS with the perennials (root channels shown) exploring to 12 feet in depth. A road cut south of Goodland about 10.5 miles on SH 27 tells the rooting story and why Winter Canola will pull nutrients from deeper in the profile.

The volcanic loess soils are also very deep in Eastern Washington.  Winter Canola will stop erosion and build soil on steep slopes.

Winter Canola is a technical crop requiring new tooling. The winter crop with double crop potential is meant for advanced producers only.


Goodland roots go deep.  

Just before dormancy, during the late fall or winter seasons, producers need to single disc band or apply 65 lbs. N as NH3. Winter Canola requires Ammonium(NH3) only for maximum hardiness.  

The 65 lb. per acre N as NH3 rate is very close to optimum nitrogen rate on irrigated production. A dryland rate of 35 to 45 lbs N per acre as NH3 is a good economic rate.

The Exactrix TAPPS formulation includes 10 to 20 lbs. P or 10-34-0 as Ammonium Poly Phosphate and 20 to 30 lbs S as Thio-sul®, 12-0-0-26S. Micros must be applied with the APP/ATS mix in a homogenous blend using Ammoniated Zinc, Cu and a very small amount of boron (ounces). Potassium Thio-Sulfate or KTS can also considered.

High sulfur input is required to build an oil content of 44%. Boron and Copper are important for the reproductive stage.  

Note: Do not over-apply primary nutrients or micro nutrients as the Winter Canola crop root system is highly exploratory and does not require much help from commercial fertilizer.  

Double Crop, It is Possible to let the Winter Canola Volunteer or come back from seed lost at harvest, and then after 60 days, green chop the crop for the local dairies in August/September. Following green chop harvest, No-till seed winter wheat in late September and band TAPPS with single disc Mustang openers after the winter wheat crop is up. 

Winter Canola reduces disease pressure on following crops.  

A three year rotation would be Corn, Winter Wheat, Winter Canola. The Winter Canola is a good soil fumigant shifting the disease spectrum and allowing up to 10% yield increases in winter and spring wheat and undocumented yield increases in dryland and irrigated corn.  

Follow a three year rotation to maintain a high quality disease free seed bed for Winter Canola. Another good 3 year rotation would be Winter Canola and green chop volunteer canola, Corn, late seeded Winter Wheat. This is a powerful rotation that frees up the workload in the spring with 2/3 of the irrigated acres in winter crop production.

1.    In dryland production, Winter Wheat, Winter Canola, Milo.  Allowing 2/3 of the production in winter crops.  

2.    Another technique to consider to lower the dryland risk during low commodity prices would be Winter Canola, Winter Wheat, Milo and Full year Chemfallow/Oats cover crop. This would allow ¾ of system producing cash flow and ¼  of the system producing a flywheel effect in moisture storage and less risk in low commodity prices.  

3.     In dryland production, Winter Canola, Winter Wheat/Stripper Header, Full year Chemfallow with optional Cover Crop Oats. All crops are winter crops operating with a 1/3 reserve of moisture storage. Utilizing stored soil moisture to establish the winter Canola in August/September. 

Always consider 7 inch deep banding into the growing crop, with the Mustang P-51C TAPPS banding option. “Today and for the modern times of commodity crop production, band TAPPS into growing crops, it is time proven economically functional. “, GJS.

At Goodland, KS, the Winter Canola stand looks pretty good, but will it make it through the winter of 2016/2017? 

No-tillage and Strip Tillage cropping with Mustang openers and TAPPS and Strip till 30, TAPPS

Oct. 19,  16, A Wednesday. Goodland Kansas. About 1.5 mile south of I-70  in deep soils of Goodland, KS.

Seed provider, Rubisco, Mercedes variety of Winter Canola. Planted at a population from 100,00 to 300,000 in 30 inch rows. Inclusive pictures will explain.

Orthman 12 row strip till tool bar in front of the planter moving heavy winter wheat residue.  

Deere 1710 NT Planter with RRV meters, 90 cell.

A winter hardening growth regulator and fungicide applied about 2 days earlier. The Winter Canola leafs show a dull surface rather than the typical shinny surface.

An acceptable learning curve. There was operator error or mechanical trouble with the planter hitting the population. 

Strip tilled and planted in heavy Winter Wheat in residue.  The no-till winter wheat yields were very good  and in the mid 90’s bushels per acre.   

Estimate 8,000 to 10,000 lbs of winter wheat residue per acre. 

Winter wheat, corn rotation, irrigated production at the elevation of 3,681 feet at 39.3 degrees North. Considered one of the best crop production areas in western Kansas.

The pre-plant preparation is a 30 inch strip tillage seed bed with no nutrients applied.

Nutrients yet to be applied using TAPPS with a Single Disc Mustang Tool Bar.  Timing nutrients closer to the dormant period or in the dormant period.

Higher than normal temperatures during the fall establishment.  

The crowns have reset back to the surface as the taproot expands. 

The crown reset is occurring most effectively in low population rows.   

The high population rows will probably winter kill due to high competition and poor crown set.

Single Disc Banding of TAPPS is delayed until the crop is dormant.  

The crop must not be lush.  Only Ammonium is used.  

TAPPS and TAPPKTS banding is critical to winter survival year in and year out.

Tri-Ammonium Poly Phosphate Sulfate with low cost Ammoniated Zinc.  Total 100% ammonium nutrition at 1% CV of application and crystallization.


Winter Canola nutrients are most effectively applied between November to middle February. Banding TAPPS into the growing crop allows highest nutrient efficiency. 

TAPPS and TAPPKTS provides the most immediate nutrient uptake in the root zone. Ammonium is immediately available to the growing roots when band at the 7 inch depth in vermiculated bands.   

Application Uniformity of NH3 and Liquid Ammonium Poly Phosphate, and Ammonium Thio-Sulfate or Thio-Sul® is 1% CV.  

Micro-nutrients such as Ammoniated Zinc, Copper and Boron can also be applied in the liquid streaming flow band. 

The unique and proprietary advantage of Anhydrous Ammonia and Snow.  Both low cost and natural inputs are totally synergistic in improving crop yields by providing ammonium nutrition to the growing roots of the crop as the snow melts and perks into the soil.  

The Winter Canola roots will grow under the Snow Pack with ammonium nutrition, and Winter Canola prefers Ammonium, not urea and not nitrate. Canola prefers Ammonium combined with low cost Poly Phosphate and Thio-sul®.  

Facing West at Goodland a fantastic management technique implemented to save moisture and produce and even soil perk of the melting snow .   

A superior example of standing stubble producing additional winter protection from the north winds.  

A high population row stands out with a different color.  

Strip till seems very appropriate in the high residue production of Canola, takes the load off of the Planter row cleaners. No nutrients are applied with the strip till tool bar.  

Several different approaches have been taken across Kansas and Colorado. In no-till, strip till and even mini till. Row spacings from 10, 15,  20, twin row 15 and 30 inch.

Good Crown Set of Winter Canola, Rubisco, Mercedes.

The leaves appear dull or not shinny as compared non-applied
No Growth regulator here.
North of the pivot position at the outside tower next to the road, no fungicide and growth regulator, .25 acres.

Let the volunteer wheat grow. Select® herbicide can be spring applied. Judge the crop at dormancy break in late March. TAPPS nutrients are applied at just above freezing temperatures from November to Feb. 15.

The November period is preferred for Exactrix® TAPPS when the ground temperature reaches 35 to 40 degrees. There is very little chance of leaching nitrogen and the Taproots have reached the 3-4 foot level.

Classic No-Tillage Stand, ready for the snow trap, and the Great Plains winter winds. The Growth Regulator is and the Fungicide is on. Mustang Banding with NH3, APP /ATS and double rates of Thio-Sul® for protein and oil content, Nutrients TAPPS will be banded when the crop is proceeding into dormancy or dormant.

Strip Tillage cleared a path in very heavy residue.

Let the volunteer grow for now, Grass Control Option, PPG 135, Chemhoe, IPC and Sevin would be the ideal  grass control in the dormant crop in November, December.  Used in the 1980’s for chemical fallow, and ideal material for winter canola and winter peas. Select will probably be used in the early spring. 

A fantastic goal, would be to avoid the use of Roundup, and use old chemicals that did work very well in the 80’s, A least have the option to use Chemhoe.  

Crystalline TAPPS and TAPPKTS. Mustang Banding Tool Bar, Positive Down pressure Wing.
Banding deep at 7 inches with virtually no soil disturbance.

Band directly into growing crops with confidence using Exactrix Mustang P-51C and CUE openers. Shelton, NE, 2,045 feet, 40.48 N.  

Harvesting Winter Canola Direct vs. Swathed in middle to late June at Yuma, Colorado, 3,950 feet at 40.1 degrees N.  

Direct harvesting, irrigated production,  may be more effective in allowing lost seed (wind or hail) to volunteer more evenly for green chop production in 65 to 90 days.
Heavy swathed rows and hail can result in 10 to 15 bushel of Canola volunteering in a concentrated area of the swath.

The trend is to harvest Spring and Winter Canola direct to assure higher oil content and a more efficient harvest scene.
Breeders like Bayer now offer Pod-setter technology in Spring Canola that improves shatter when harvesting direct. http://www.research.bayer.com/en/canola.aspx

Bayer does not offer Winter Canola in North America presently.
Bayer does have Winter Canola in Europe.
Pod-Setter could be a very acceptable and mandatory development on the Great Plains.

Winter Canola is a good business opportunity for producers on the Great Plains.

Inserting Canola into a 3 year or 4 year rotation is mandatory to improve winter wheat, corn and Milo yields. Following crops benefit from the fumigation properties and the improvement in a healthy soil.

A crushing plant and large dairies close by does make the pricing right and advantageous. A similar synergism to ethanol and distillers grain for beef cows is Canola crush and lactating cows. 

The canola crush improves lactating cow’s milk production. There is a tooling change. Nutrients must be banded and it must be Ammonium nutrition must be applied in late fall or during dormancy to assure winter survival.

The planter is most likely the best method to establish the crop on 15, 20 or 30 inch spacing. Seed costs can be improved and yields also improved by spacing the plant about 4 to 5 inches apart.  

A Monosem planter has been very successful at spacing seed in breeder production scenarios.  The Canola version of the modified Deere planter is in a fine tuning stage with industry help. Populations of 40,000 to 60,000 will produce good yields in dryland production.

An Idaho Tall Crop at 7 to 8 feet.  
No doubt, a fun crop to raise and understand.
A technical crop requiring training and practice.
Winter Canola is not at all like winter wheat.
Winter Canola is a unique crop meant for the champions of production agronomy, production economics, and No-till.

Winter Canola is a competitive and excellent weed control crop that will produce multiyear results. It is also known as a fumigant, breaking disease and insect (nematode) cycles. Genesee, Idaho, 2,835 feet at 46.33 N.
Winter Canola is functional and adaptable on 20 inch and 30 inch rows.
Winter Canola seed should be metered into the soil at about 4 to 5 inch spacing. The plant compensates very well to absorb the light as the daylight period lengthens.

Winter Canola is much like corn in absorbing light and developing deep roots.
Winter Canola must have a good start. There is a critical seeding date and emergence date and thus 99.5 % of the plants must emerge in the first 4 to 5 days of planting.

High populations of Winter Canola hurt yield and reduce effectiveness.  
Winter Canola can be variable rate planted further improving yields and reducing seed costs.

The winter rainfall pattern of the PNW, Chemfallow Winter Canola stand establishment can be tricky. St. John, Washington at 2,058 feet at 47.05 N
There must be full emergence in the first 4 to 5 days of planting. No delay of emergence is allowed, no seed and wait philosophy of winter wheat seeding.

The poor establishment of Winter Canola as shown is not a good practice to help expand the acreage and save soil.
Time proven, water injection is required in dryland Chemfallow,
Winter Canola production in the PNW and Kansas.

Thus 30 inch planter spacing makes more sense with water injection as it requires less water.
Chemical Fallow, a twelve month investment that did not work is shown above.
Irrigated production of Winter Canola may also benefit with K-Mag and water injection.

Bees and Canola go together. Open pollinated crops pick up about 5% on yield with Honey Bees taking care of their business for the beekeeper.  

Hybrid  Seed Canola Harvest. SHB and Bayer.

Highest seed quality must be assured to allow top levels of germination. A very expensive seed.  Somewhat like corn.

Hybrid Breeder Harvest of InVigor®, Spring Canola. Direct cut for maximum seed quality along the Spokane River flood plain, an ideal area for breeding canola.  A 10,000 year rotation. Previously in pine trees and the geological outflow of the Lake Missoula Flood of the last Ice Age.
Long Lake Reservoir, Spokane River 1,809 feet at 47.48 N.  

Fewer acres of wheat and more acres of Canola. The market says so.

Winter Canola can greatly enhance Winter Wheat production. Winter Canola is known for its conservation soil holding capability.

Three critical factors are involved in the development of the Great Plains. “The land was a naked as the back of your hand”, Willa Cather, pioneer author of the Great Plains, Red Cloud, NE.

Burning the Grassland Prairie, natural and planned. The American Indian helped assure a burnt grass land prairie with deep grassland soils that had no trees or scrub brush, a sea of grass allowing up to 60 million Buffalo at the evolutionary peak on the Great Plains.   

The American Bison or Buffalo…at about 30 million in 1840 developing the red meat diet of the aggressive and mean Great Plains Indians. The Buffalo was eliminated to change their diet and culture.

By1880 the Buffalo were all gone and the American Indian had a new home in Oklahoma.

The plant life. The Sand Burr which allowed the grassland soils to develop on the sand hills and the sandy soils of the river plains. Once you have been introduced to the Sand Burr you will understand.   

The Great American Desert was considered the treeless areas east of the Rocky Mountains.

Without trees the pioneer could not build a house or cut firewood. The pioneers lived in dugouts and sod houses until the wood arrived.

The fire place was loaded with Buffalo chips.

The area was not considered habitable until the railroad could deliver the wood from Wisconsin after the civil war.

Finally the railroad accomplished the trade routes to the stock yards and the Great Plains cattle drives delivered the beef to the expanding railheads.

The live cattle were shipped back to Chicago and the free auction market.   

The Buffalo meat rotted in the sun as the killing season was on.

Wood came west to Dodge City, KS or Ogallala, Nebraska and domesticated cattle went east for a good backhaul.  Beef is a product of Animal Husbandry and Land Grant University Cooperative Extension supporting the cattle industry.

Then came the emphasis on Arbor day (Nebraska) and the expansion of the forested homesteads onto the Great Plains. The trees followed the railroads that ran on water grades primarily.

Then came the wood peckers which were never observed in the far western forest. The wood peckers followed the telegraph poles.

Training Videos are available at www.exactrix.com/EOYT.htm

More news about Relay Intercropping at www.exactrix.com/RI.htm

Nitrogen Stabilization,
Thio-Sul® is as good or better than N-Serve®. http://www.exactrix.com/Broadcast_03_11_16.htm

Mustard and Fumigation at WSU, U of I subject web page at www.exactrix.com/FM.htm

Terminate your Cover Crop Early.

TAPPS and TAPPKTS at www.exactrix.com/TF.htm

For a good overview of banding deeper go to Center Pivot Corn Production

Need more historical reference of Exactrix Global Systems? Go to www.exactrix.com/EWAC.htm

Banding Deeper in No-till without tillage with Rotational Band Loading. www.exactrix.com/mustang.htm

Need more information about STEEP test plots and how Exactrix performs? Go to www.exactrix.com/mcclure.htm

See Video  How TAPPS and TAPPKTS Changed a Kansas Farm. A  KSU Ag Economist gives a good review.    

Meeting your formulation needs. www.exactrix.com/TF.htm  

Picking your metering systems. www.exactrix.com/EPM.htm  

Need more information on advanced crop production? Go to www.exactrix.com/EWAC.htm


Exactrix P51 Mustangs
 Outstanding Video With Kevin Medow and His P51 Mustangs