With It? News About Water.
Dr. Noori, OSU, Imbibed Seed, SRS,
Abscisic Acid, Wheat,
Winter Canola. OSU, WSU, U of I, KSU, Dr. Noori.
Ninety Per Cent
of the Erosion of the Great Plains Comes From a Winter Wheat
We are raising
the wrong crop.
winter wheat crop in the PNW Chemfallow rotation.
chance for emergence in a No-till soil. A soil with a high CEC with
excellent depth for storage of winter moisture.
Tillage through the last 130 years provides most of the erosion on
the Great Plains.
stores about 10% to 20% of the original carbon and cannot start a
fall crop timely as it did in the early pioneering years.
Wheat deep, the more it is tilled the more difficult it becomes at
stand of winter wheat is difficult. No wonder dryland corn is the
backup plan and it is a better choice.
requires SRS for a 99% stand in 4 days.
Time for a
better crop. Raising a better crop that is good for the soil and the
Water....all and before the Internet, ring
Student at Oregon State. F. Noori. A PhD in Water Injection, Winter
Wheat In Tillage.
plains of Oregon and in the Willamette Valley,
the fall start of winter wheat can be difficult requiring
special, HZ split Packer drills in heavy tillage, black fallow 2,
year rotation wheat on wheat.
soil areas of North Central Oregon cannot take much more tillage,
since they had virtually no soil to begin with. Travel down
highway 97 to Bend Oregon from the Columbia River, Somehow the Ash
went right over the top of the Basalt Plain.
intention was to use water to start the germination of winter wheat
in black fallow systems...with a soil stored capillary moisture line
that could not be maintained well in the germination zone in
volcanic ash soils of the Cascade range.
the Commercial Fertilizer Era, the
Beginning of No-tillage in the PNW, 1973-75,
the second very beginning.
Stationary Threshers, Horses and hoe drills,1928
was the true beginning.
Yielder/Pioneer, Mort and I had a long
discussion with Lyle Nagle of WSU Agronomy Department. We were
trying to clean up a shallow soil farm at Palouse,
loaded with cheat grass from 5 No-till years of top dressing
Ammonium Nitrate in continuous winter wheat 1975 to 80.
dressing drill was Old Yeller. This was a top dressing design and
the Comfort King Drill was the copy of Old Yeller. Since it was
shallow to rock at Palouse certain fields were best in Perennial or
was referred to as Granny's Pad. It was intended as a pig farm
during the Great Depression. It was not meant to be farmed since it
was way too shallow of soil type up against the timber of Palouse
River Canyon, and did not have enough soil
to 3 feet to store moisture in fallow.
farm (Granny's Pad) did not allow tillage since there were too many
rocks and no place to store the 21 inches of rainfall. Similar
scenarios are found South of the Snake River Canyon across Idaho,
Washington and Oregon.
Canola is a fit in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and was well proven
by Lewis Key at Milton Freewater, Oregon.
a copy of this Nori paper when we went to water injection for Dwarf
Essex, Winter Rape in 1983 to 1985.
We fired up
a friendship with the seed supplier of Dwarf Essex at Julietta,
Idaho, George F Brocke and Sons, Dean Brocke became our coach on
injection program appeared to be way far out in left field for
winter wheat, but for a July Seeding of
Dwarf Essex it might work.
at WSU had seen the paper.
remember the advance information coming from Oregon State. I will
source the paper from the OSU library.
At WSU Lyle
Nagel was a key scientist in the adaption to no-tillage farming in
the 70's and 80's.
He and Mort
were best friends, Lyle had won the Silver Star in the Battle of
Bulge so he was "big medicine".
He was also
a good skier, a former farmer and WSU weed scientist, (early
developer of Stauffer Sulfasate and Glyphosate, sold to Monsanto
for peanuts) and a director on the Palouse School Board,
so Lyle had a big effect on the Swanson Family.
got us started down a good path. Note:
50 ml per meter of row water is the same as 2.21 gallons per
minute per row of water at 6 mph.
must be delivered into the row with no splash at .5 to 1 psi
pressure of release.
critical points that should not be missed...150 gallons per acre
water is required on 10 inch and delivery at 1 psi in the row,
keep this in mind when you start thinking an ordinary starter
fertilizer system will work, starter
fertilizer systems will not work. Since the pumps at 60 feet on twin
row planter need to be 92 gallon per minute, most
starter fertilizer systems do about 8 to 12 gallons per minute.
Noori went as high as 70 ml per meter. He is Iranian as near as I
can tell, and maybe he went back to Iran
to teach the Iranian scientists how to raise wheat and use water to
imbibe the seed. Cannot figure this one out. It would be
interesting if Dr. Larry Stolskoph's discoveries from Iran are a
fall out of the Oregon State, PhD thesis.
50 ml of flow is the same as .013 gallons.
tool to Inject Water.
Exactrix, GJS and Joel McClure, we think
about 1.5 gallon per minute per row to 2 gallon per minute per row
is about it at Hugoton at 6 mph. It depends on the
soil, the temperature and residue. The rate also depends if
producers desire to get the full SRS effect which includes the
dilution of Abscisic Acid. Budget 50 gallons per acre on 30 inch,
up to 65 gallons per acre on 30 inch at worst conditions.
In 1983, 84
and 85, our Yielder Drill 10 inch spacing,
No-tillage seedings were all completed with a 20 inch deep band in
paired row 5/15...at 150 gallons per acre. The seed germination
requires a big cart or tank. The program requires is a lot of water
and well worth it, a wonder crop with a
good stand of a winter perennial in July over the eroded Palouse
clay hilltops. Most of the erosion coming from the plow. Man-made
destruction of good land.
did we stick with it? The water cost was
totally insignificant as yields were 5,000 to 5,500 lbs., per acre
range of Dwarf Essex Winter Rape. The crop was
a cleanup powerhouse and established in July on a shallow
again...the scientist was on the mark in a tillage system struggling
Dr. Noori needed a good practitioner to go make water
injection work in totally different system and a different crop. I
am certain that no credit was given for the dilution of the hormone
Abscisic Acid as SRS does with a small amount of Zinc Sulfate ( 3 to
4 ppm) enhancing the breakdown of the hormone.
Injection or SRS (Hormone dilution effect) worked and it worked
every time...and water
injection was not required for No-tillage Winter Wheat with the
Yielder design, but required for Winter
Canola since the Chemfallow would lose the moisture line in July
Rape Dwarf Essex must have an emerged stand in 4 days and 99%
germinated and coming out the ground hell roaring in
faith, that was the amazing discovery
across the land. As soon as the seed went in the ground it was on a
march to maturity no matter where it was located in the landscape,
up and over the top. The plant must germinate in 4 to 8 hours and
SRS will dilute the Abscisic Acid which delays the
germination. This is now called SRS or Seed Row Saturation.
soil types just required the extra water to get a stand of winter
rape and Winter Canola, the hilltops and
areas where weed pockets of wild oats had harvested the moisture
could not imbibe the seed. But there was more to the story….the
hormone that was delaying germination could be diluted.
obvious water injection(SRS) was going to work at the end of harvest
the first year, we were geared up to clean
out the grassy weeds with Dwarf Essex since we had a cheat grass
control soil active chemical PPG 135, a
dry flowable designed to take out grasses for about $2.00 per acre.
PPG 135 was a
late October and early November with soil temperatures hit 50
degrees F, a temperature sensitive soil
active and a power play to take out he grass of all types. A spin
off from pea production in the PNW. It allowed a spring crop to be
planted if the Dwarf Essex froze out.
Pittsburg Plate and Glass material was economical and killed cheat
grass, in fact all grasses as a temperature sensitive soil active
selective herbicide. Great Crops followed the Winter
Canola/Winter Rape and we were on a roll with Dwarf Essex. PPG-135
was a combination of IPC and Sevin. The Sevin was a soil insecticide
that delayed the bacteria from degrading the IPC at 50 degrees and
in the IPC, PPG-135 mix may have also helped with fall insects,
commonly see in Winter Canola. The PPG 135 was sprayed over the top
of the growing plant.
answers are there. Just a little coaching and SRS is
going to be a real success story across the Great Plains and Idaho,
Washington, Oregon and Utah as winter wheat fades away for now.
Drills were the baseline machines that allowed No-tillage farming to
develop in the western US, Canada and Spain.
We have been raising the wrong
Operating Instructions for SRS.
Dr. Noori. Iran. Water Injection, Controlled in Growth
reference, 50 ml per meter of row is .013 gallons per meter or 3.28
feet of row.
At 6 mph this is 2.126 gallons
per minute per row or 161 meters of travel or 528 feet of travel.
1 acre per minute is 8.25 mph
with a 60 foot planter with 24 rows on 30 inch centers.
At 8.25 mph (1 acre per minute)
this is 2.91 gallon per minute per row and this is 221.34 meters
of travel or 726 feet of travel.
This 6 mph at 50 ml per meter
application is 50.4 gallons per minute at 60 feet width, 24/30
openers or .7272 acres per minute.
Testing showed about 50 ml per meter of row length or about 2.1
gallons per minute per row at 6 mph was a good goal.
At 50 ml per meter application is 69.3 gallons per acre. at 6 mph
at 60 feet at .7272 acres per minute at 2.1 gallons per minute of 30
The parameter was set to 70 ml or about 2.94 gallons per minute per
row at 6 mph or .7272 acres per minute.
This 70 ml per meter application is 97 gallons per acre.
1983, 84, 85, Not SRS.
The Proven Rate in Palouse Soils in 3 years of testing over about
1,500 acres indicated that 150 gallons per acre was correct with 10
The place to
start with dual purpose SRS, H2O and 3 ppm Zinc Sulfate.
10 inch 150 gallons per acre,
15 inch 100 gallons per acre,
20 inch 75 gallons per acre,
30 inch 50 gallons per acre,
40 inch 37.5 gallons per acre.
Since the application is No-till
with capillary movement 50 gallons per acre has been selected for
30 inch row spacing.
This is a row flow of 1.53
gallons per minute at 6 mph or 528 feet. This is 36 ml per meter
This is not
a simple decision. What is the real cost of the Water? Will the
Return be 10 to 30 times greater than the investment?
What is the minimum return anticipated? About $150 more net income
with Winter Canola.
High Quality Winter Wheat Seed
(Faro and Stephens) is not the same or even close to high quality,
planter grade, Rubisco Hybrid, singulated Winter Canola Seed.
The Cost of Water. Estimated at
$5.00 per acre. The Cost to operate a planter at 90% of nominal
acres per day.
How to raise the efficiency of
the planter to 98% level of efficiency as compared to no starter
fertilizer system on the planter?
Can the planter reach 98% level
of efficiency with the correct equipment and personnel?
It is estimated that the trailer
of 2,800 gallons of water and up to 1,000 gallons on the tractor
will require 50 horsepower or about .2 gallons per acre additional
affect the correct in row water rate are:
Daytime temperature/night time or
humidity or evaporation rate at altitude.
Soil water holding capacity.
Soil type and CEC.
Areas of escaped weeds. Poor weed
The point of injection, No
splashing, quick sealing.
The design of the planter opener,
shank tillage verse offset leading double disc precision planter
In Row Seed Spacing. .625 spacing
verse 6.2 inch spacing. 10X.
Seed size, planter grade vs bin
Seed condition, coating and
Hard Seed Coats?
High Abscisic Acid levels of
Support of the planter and the
quality of the injection determines the water rate.
New developments in dilution and
or flushing of Abscisic Acid.
New chemicals or hormones to
stimulate the germination of winter Canola and other seeds.
Always Check the seed with a 50%
humidity test between towels.
Make certain the water delivery
tubes are fine-tuned, will not splash and make a delivery at 1 psi
on steep slopes on the Palouse.
Raise water flow on truck roads
and compacted soil areas.
Low residue means higher water.
Poor weed control means higher
Sandy soils mean more water.
Raise the water rate on low OM,
high clay soils or hilltops.
Study hormones and Abscisic acid
for improved germination.
Make certain you educate others
There will be failures by others
that do not apply the criteria. Find out why they failed.
No attempt should be made if the
stored soil moisture line does not exist or is too deep for a
what Dr. Noori has to say. Oregon State University, Doctors Thesis
from 1979 to 1982.
establishment plays a significant role in the development and yield
of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
Availability of soil moisture to
the germinating seed is one of the most critical factors affecting
Water injection is a
method of applying supplemental moisture to the soil in direct
contact with the seed by injecting small amounts of water into
seed-zone at planting.
purpose of this study was to evaluate water injection as a means of
enhancing stand establishment by improving soil moisture conditions
surrounding the germinating seed.
injection and combinations of water with liquid starter fertilizer
treatments were compared with a check which received no water, under
different soil water potential treatments in growth chambers and in
Two soft white winter wheat cultivars, Faro and Stephens,
were compared. In preliminary experiments water was added to the
seed-zone of dry soil (-11 bars) at rates of
20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 ml/m row in one experiment
30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ml/m row in another (soil at -15
These treatments increased seed-zone moisture content
immediately after adding water and the moisture remained higher for
Thus, it appeared
that water injection should be effective in hastening imbibition by
Subsequently, 40, 50
and 60 ml/m row water only and combination of each water rate with 5
ml/m row of a liquid fertilizer mixture, 10-34-0, improved stand
establishment over the check under -11 and -15 bars soil moisture
concentrations of liquid fertilizer depressed germination and
These studies were done in growth chambers.
Water alone at rate
of 50 ml/m and the combination of 50 ml/m water plus 5 ml/m 10-34-0
treatments, resulted in greater stand establishment, plant growth
and yield compared to the check under -11 bars tension in 1979-80
Cultivars did not differ in stand establishment and plant
growth due to water or water plus fertilizer injection.
Both 20 and 40 ml
water only treatments improved stand establishment over the check,
but the 40 ml water/m row rate resulted in the greatest emergence
and gave the highest emergence rate index under -11 and -9 bars
tension in 1980 growth chamber study and 1980-81 field study,
The 40 ml water/m row alone and the combination of 40 ml
water/m row with low rates of fertilizer improved plant development,
leaf P content and yield over the checks under -9 bars tension in
1980-81 field study.
All three water injections at rates of 20, 40 and 60 ml/m in
1981-82 field study increased seed-zone moisture content, and
improved imbibitions, stand establishment and seedling growth over
the check in fallowed (-6 bars) and non-fallowed (-8 bars).
Technical Products for
raising soybeans in high pH using TAPPKTS and Ferrilene.
Iron Chlorosis Tolerant Beans.
TAPPS and TAPPKTS formulators. www.exactrix.com/EPM.htm
Super Phosphate, http://www.cropnutrition.com/single-superphosphate
Your Great Plains Reporter.