page last updated
07/27/2010 11:58:29 AM
TAPPS reviewed with
(A nitrogen trial turns into a
Wittman Farms, Lewiston, Idaho, Dick,
Todd and Bob Wittman.
University of Idaho, Cooperative Extension, Larry Smith,
Exactrix Global Systems, Spokane, Guy Swanson.
Assisting and observing with the plots, Bob Brown and
Dick Lloyd, Lewiston, Idaho.
TAPPS.....7 gallons of APP/ATS applied with Exactrix
liquid NH3 and crystallized between paired rows, 2
inches below and 1.5 inches to the side of the seed
Row, N,P and S applied at a 50 pound nominal rate of
16-2-0-14S in the seed row using Flexicoil Paired
Row Stealth Opener.
Seeding rate, 1.26 million seeds per acre of HRWW, Eddy
variety.(Seeding Rate) 90 pounds per acre seed rate at
14,000 kernels per pound.
Harvest Date, July 25, 07,
Seeding date, October 2006
Climate, PNW with a 70% Winter Rainfall, early July heat
and wind at 100 degrees F moved the maturity ahead.
Rainfall Year, 25% below normal....normal 20 inch to 22
inch rainfall....following a dry 20% below normal
rainfall year in 2006.
Rotation, Five Years explained: 2007 HRWW following
2006 spring canola, 2005 Soft White Winter Wheat, 2004
Soft White Winter Club Wheat, 2003 Spring Columbia
Click on images to
slopes. Plots were 3 to 5% slope angle facing to the north and well
drained with no signs of standing water.
Changing altitude from 850 feet to 4,000 feet in ten
miles. Varying rainfall patterns and soil depths.
Soil depth, At least
6 feet of depth in the plot area. Loess deposits of the Cascade
Soil pH =
OM = 4.3 – 4.8
Trials, Randomized and Replicated 3 times with 9 total
plots at 400 feet in length and applied 45 feet wide.
Following Steep II criteria.
Soil Test Data, Data taken and available prior to
seeding....Soil lab recommendations made. Nitrogen Rates
adjusted to .6 of nominal and then adjusted downward in
25% increments. Soil lab recommendation was 150 pounds
N. Adjustment at .6 of soil lab recommendation was made
for Exactrix uniform application at 90 pounds N/A as a
good mean average rate of application.
plots started at 110 pounds N/A at NH3 in 25% increments
down to 83 pounds N/A and then down to 62 pounds N/A as
NH3. N from APP/ATS and 16-20-0-14S was held constant at
12 pounds N/A.
sources included....Actual total N/A applied in the
plots was 75 pounds N/A in the best trial when including
the 12 pounds N/A from other sources. Second best was
totalized at 95 pounds N/A. Last place was totalized at
122 pounds N/A.
Yield, Protein and Test Weight.
Ammoniated APP/ATS applied and crystallized in lineal uniform bands with
Nitrogen as direct injection liquid NH3 at time of seeding.
NH3 was varied using the Exactrix 2KC Weigh Master application
technology at 1 % CV and no sinusoidal flow.
pounds N produced 89.10 bushels per acre at a test
weight of 63.50 pounds per bushel with a protein of
10.60% @ $6.66 per bushel......$593.40...N
pounds N produced 83.50 bushels per acre at a test
weight of 63.27 pounds per bushel with a protein of
11.03% @ $6.82 per bushel.....$569.47...N adjusted
pounds N produced 76.60 bushels per acre at a test
weight of 62.73 pounds per bushel with a protein of
11.77% @ 6.90 per bushel........$528.54....N adjusted
Harvest Wheat Prices August 3, 07
Adjusting N cost at 30 cents per pound N as NH3 at
current wheat prices in $6.66 to $6.90 range.
Trial Case, 89.1 bu./A at $6.66 per bushel, 62
pounds N. $593.40
Second Best, 83.5 bu./A at $6.82 per bushel, 83
pounds N. N Negative $6.30 at $569.47 gross or
adjusted to $563.17,
$30.23 per acre negative return.
Last Place, 76.6 bu/A. at $6.90
per bushel, 110 pounds N. N Negative
$14.40 at $528.54 gross or adjusted to $514.14,
$79.26 per acre
Lower Wheat Prices,
Adjusting the Wheat Price at 50% or roughly $3.50 per
bushel. A likely price over the last five years.
Trial Case, 89.1 bu./A., 62 pounds N at $3.33 per
Second Best, 83.5 bu./A., 83
pounds N at $3.41 per bushel, $284.73 less $6.10 for
per acre negative return.
Last Place, 76.6 bu./A., 110
pounds N at $3.45 per bushel, $264.27 less $14.40 for N
$46.83 per acre negative return.
Higher Wheat Prices,
Adjusting the Wheat price at 133% or roughly $9.00 per
bushel. A fair price in relation to the price of
nutrients.$ 9.00 per bushel wheat is relative compared
to $5.00 corn.
Trial Case, 89.1 bu./A., 62 pounds N at $8.86 per
Second Best, 83.5 bu./A., 83
pounds N at $9.07 per bushel, $757.40 less $6.10 for N
$751.29, $37.97 per
acre negative return.
Last Place, 76.6 bu./A., 110
pounds N at $9.18 per bushel, $702.95 less $14.40 for N
is $688.55, $100.66
per acre negative return.
Wheat Price Aug 3, 07
freight and terminal handling is normally around 44
cents per bushel from Lewiston, ID to Portland, OR
passing through 4 Snake River Dams and 4 Columbia River
Dams to Portland.
Genesee Union, an upland elevator 20 miles off the Snake
River seaport, shows about 63 cents per bushel less
Portland price at the country elevator.
Hauling direct from the field to the Lewiston, Idaho
seaport terminal saves about 19 cents.
Agriculture is about Transportation and Water....so
producers can adjust prices based on Portland delivered
prices and deduct the freight.
Based on Portland prices Friday Aug. 3, 07.
Number 1, HRWW, Falling numbers 300 or better.
Ordinary protein, $6.66
protein, Montana Origin,$7.02
Friday, Dec. 21, 07
US Number 1, HRWW, Falling numbers 300 or
Ordinary Protein $10.54
10% protein $10.54
11% protein $10.74
11.5% protein $10.87
12% protein $10.87
13% protein $10.99
13% protein, Milling Quality Montana Origin
Two years Exactrix test plot data.....in
2006 spring wheat and 2007 winter wheat.
In 2007....Yields are increased.....when
nitrogen is reduced..... and placed phosphate is
made more efficient.
Exactrix Process Management has a niche in improving
profit and reducing risk.
dry years in a row....no
soil moisture reserve...7 years data
Notes, Terms, Points of Interest.
Notes and Points of Interest..the 9 inch band
spacing...There is also a variety trial at the
Wittman Farm....The variety trials were done a bit
differently at 150 pounds N as NH3...TAPPS was not
formulated....but there was a dual placement
approach.....The typical pressure reducing application
for the variety trials were done with a 9 inch band
spacing Flexicoil seeder using an
Anderson shank type opener. There was no intent to
compare the 9 inch Flexicoil seeder to
the 12 inch Flexicoil seeder or to
review nutrient process efficiency..the purpose of the
variety trials was simply to find the best variety which
turned out to be Eddy.
The Nitrogen rate Plots are 12 inch band
spacing.....The N trials that join the variety
trials were done with the Exactrix equipped Flexicoil
seeder that can formulate TAPPS. The Exactrix
TAPPS formulation trials were done with a 12 inch band
spacing using a Paired Row, Flexicoil Stealth opener.
Previous Wittman Exactrix hard red
spring wheat trials in 2006 indicated about 30%
to 40% more efficiency of N using the Exactrix equipped
seeder in 20% below normal rainfall.. Thus the N rate
with the Exactrix seeder started at 110 pounds N and was
reduced to 83 and 62 pounds hoping to produce a yield
curve for N. You can view the 2006 trials
purpose of the nitrogen trial was to compare internally
using the same seeder and TAPPS application to find the
correct N rate. The goal was to find the yield curve for
applied N. The next step would be a VR site specific
application in the upcoming crop years using Legacy 6000
mapping and control....The purpose of the plots is
to discover the correct algorithm for TAPPS application
and Exactrix process management.
will note that the N rate starting point was based on
the soil lab recommendation....then using a .6 factor of
the soil lab recommendation with the Exactrix Flexicoil seeder.
Rather than 150 pounds N as the starting point...... the
starting point was established at 110 pounds N...reduced
to 83 pounds N per acre or a reduction of
25%....reducing again to 62 pounds N or a reduction of
25% from the 83 pound N rate. The assumption being that
an applied N yield curve could be produced.
Go to Corn Yield Summery (www.exactrix.com/CYS.pdf)
The complete Nitrogen yield curve was never
established...but close. This is not unusual for TAPPS. A
lower Nitrogen rate was required at 50 pounds N. Trials
in Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado have shown that the
starting point to develop a yield curve with TAPPS is
about 50% less than the soil lab recommendation.
www.exactrix.com/Bange.pdf and you will discover
only 8% of the gross margin is required for nutrient
input. Only 8% is all that is required for good yields
and a big net margin.
TAPPS Formulation, paired row, Flexicoil, Stealth opener
Exactrix TAPPS application requires that N be reduced at
least 40% if yields and net returns are to be
increased...this is a general review of all trials with
TAPPS in corn and wheat.
will go up when N is reduced allowing P and S to perform.
Over-application of N does result in too much top growth and
not enough root system to support the top growth.
is reduced placed P and S can perform.
The over-application of N masks the critical balance of
nutrients. Allowing P and S to perform in a balance of
27-12-0-7S or the Ortho Ratio developed by Chevron Chemical,
Jim and Gordon Thorpe. The Ortho Ratio is a consistent and
persistent performer in wet and dry conditions.
reviewed....In wet conditions N is stabilized and roots
proliferate with placed P and S...in dry conditions N, P and
S are in a balanced ratio.... developing deeper and better
Balance of nutrients indicates that N should never be
applied as a single product. NH3, Solution 32, or Urea
should never be applied as a single product unless the
agronomist is trying to mask the problem. All top dressing
approaches are known for shallow roots and low N efficiency.
Nutrients must be placed with root pattern geometry to get
best returns.... N,P and S must be side dressed into the
growing crop if yield potential is greater than planned....A
second trip is always considered to develop the best returns
under wet conditions. Side dressing winter wheat with
single disc openers is possible if yield potential is going
higher using a balance of N,P and S.
Applying at a 2.2 to 1 ratio of N to P and 3.8 to 1 ratio of
N to S is time proven...applying more N will reduce
yields with TAPPS....over-concentration of the nutrient band
with nitrogen is not economically efficient and is
considered toxic. Harapiak and Beaton have proven this
nitrogen interference problem. Go
www.exactrix.com/NP.htm There is an over
concentration point using old fashioned non uniform
application and sinusoidal flow techniques.
Questions: When conditions move to 20% above normal
rainfall should producers side dress winter wheat with
single disc openers? If the yield potential is much greater
than planned should side dress TAPPS be considered as the
plant breaks dormancy? At $6.50 wheat is side dress
economical? What is the correct wheat price to consider side
dress in wet years? Can nutrients be timed correctly?
At lot of
questions surface when the nutrient prices increase so
significantly and commodity prices do not make the same
move. 10 cent N and $3.00 wheat has been a traditional
standard in the previous decade...if N is 30 cents then
wheat needs to be $9.00 per bushel....But if wheat is $9.00
per bushel it becomes even more important to reduce
N....because N hurts yield when it is over applied. Reverse
Thinking needs to be applied with Exactrix TAPPS
technique with Exactrix TAPPS applications is to spend no
more than 12% or the gross income on nutrients. Lower pH
soils may require more nutrient...higher pH soils may
require less nutrient.
spending more than 12% of the gross income for nutrients
need to review their application process.
Comments on the Trials.
rotation is No-till Spring Canola. The rotation is at least
four years. Garbanzo Beans are in the rotation...the
rotations are normally followed closely with very good weed
control. To review the 2006 test plots at Wittman Farms go
were excellent. Weed Control was very good, No hail...No
down wheat, no sprayer track issues. 400 feet in length.
Electronic scaled with an experienced team. The combines
were equipped with a yield monitor...no protein monitor on
the combine. The electronic scales were located a the four
corner axle points of the truck. Larry Smith and Bob Brown
followed standard procedures and Todd Wittman handled the
TAPPS, Tri-Ammonium Poly Phosphate Sulfate, Super
ammonization on APP/ATS. Banded and mixed at two common
injection points with APP/ATS injected first and NH3 driven
into the APP/ATS to assure crystallization of the two
materials. To formulate TAPPS the application system must
apply uniformly port to port at low 1% CV and no sinusoidal
delivery in the lineal streaming band. Forming crystalline
TAPPS requires special attention to the injection point and
the mixing of the two materials. Not to be confused with
dual placement which does not mix the two
materials....intimate contact of the two materials is
required to make the crystals of TAPPS, circa FFF, Larry
Murphy. Proposed but never achieved until recently
using Exactrix process management.
APP, Ammonium Poly Phosphate or 10-34-0, 11-37-0
built from super phosphoric acid and NH3 and manufactured in
TVA or Shell reactors in 50 to 100 mile radius actual area
of use. In the Great Plains mobile reactors produce APP at
rail sidings for large Coops using water, and rail cars
of super phosphoric acid and NH3. APP allows Zn and other
micro nutrients to be mixed and blended into the
polymer. APP is normally used in a 60 day period from date
ATS, Ammonium Thio-Sulfate. 12-0-0-26S, built at
regional refineries as a by-product of removing sulfur from
energy products. TKI is the primary supplier. Thio-Sul is
trademarked by TKI and is also referred to as ATS. The
material is not only a sulfur source, ATS is listed as a
nitrogen stabilizer by NRCS and plant food organizations.
Thio-Sul has been known for over 40 years to stabilize
nitrogen. ATS is marketed strongly as a nitrogen stabilizer
where such products as N-serve are marketed. ATS mixes well
with APP. Homogenous blends are easily adjusted to the crop
Micro Nutrients. Ammoniated Zinc is normally mixed
with TAPPS at concentrations of no more than 1 pound Zinc to
20 pounds P. Higher levels of Zinc can be applied but the 20
to 1 ratio must be maintained. Boron is a viable
micro-nutrient to improve seed set in canola. The
advantages of liquid application of micro-nutrients is so
little is required compared to dry applications.
Low CV application, supplying nutrients into
multiple bands with very little variance at each port
outlet. A mathematical calculation that measures risk and
repeatability. Each 1 % of CV means 1% is lost or not used.
Pressure reducing NH3 systems have CV applications of 30% to
50%. Low CV application, allows application of nutrients to
be reduced since each band is very close to being exactly
the same. Not to be confused with the per acre rate....the
band rate is the ultimate rate. Nutrients are reduced
because the old methods of application were so inaccurate
that the applied nutrient algorithm established for soil
test labs was based on high CV application and lack of
High Nutrient Cost...Nutrient costs should never
exceed 12% or the gross income....if nutrient cost goes
above 12% of the gross income per acre.... the application
process must be reviewed and new techniques of application,
timing and root pattern geometry must be reviewed. Exactrix
irrigated corn producers in Nebraska and Kansas typically
spend between 8% to 12% of the gross income for nutrients in
Proven Yield Method...A means to develop a nutrient
recommendation based on what the crop needs to make good
average yields. The Proven Yield Method no longer applies
with Exactrix application since the nutrient cost has
tripled and may double again. Process management, timing and
geometry reduce nutrient requirement. The Proven Yield
Method was based on high CV application and low nutrient
cost in relation to the commodity irregardless of the
Economic Method....Reduces risk to lowest levels
and allows good returns. A means to generate a nutrient
recommendation without taking excessive risk. The economic
method has been utilized for many years by dry land
producers. Now recommended by
UNL for winter wheat
Nitrogen Price.....Green Markets Review June 2007...Varies
from $800 US dollars per US Ton in Medicine Hat,
Alberta Canada at 48.8 cents per pound N....... to $450 per
ton in Dodge City, Kansas at 27.4 cents per pound N. Wide
variations in nitrogen pricing are due to lack of
competition, transportation, and long term contracts.
cent N...nitrogen as NH3 will be manufactured with wind
making hydrogen. The technique may be portable Haber Bosch
plants coming to the hydrogen or transporting hydrogen from
wind farms to the Haber Bosch plant.
energy companies and the lack of competition on a local
basis is the problem as the supply of low cost hydrogen goes
away. The byproduct oxygen is also a big question as wind
farms gear up with hydrolysis techniques to make clean
hydrogen and oxygen. Will the oxygen be used to reform the
hydrogen with atmospheric nitrogen to make NH3? About 6.6
billion people want to know.
Environmental aspects of CO2 expulsion into the atmosphere
may cancel out the need for a hydrocarbon source to make
42% of the NH3 is imported. 17% comes from Canada and 25%
from Trinidad, Tobago. Domestic production of NH3 is a
priority long term and a matter of national security. As
the Ethanol industry expands the NH3 manufacturing business
becomes the lynch pin of reliable and low cost ethanol which
is so called carbon neutral.
manufacturing business will be switching to the
environmental solution to keep CO2 out of the atmosphere.
The diminishing supply of low cost hydrocarbons will produce
higher food costs and a need for process management. Less
carbon will go into the atmosphere as NH3 plants move away
from hydrocarbons. Coal is an option and it is being
utilized at Coffeeville, KS and Beulah, ND. Transportation
becomes a major problem with coal fired plants making NH3.
power could also be considered as a means to develop low
cost NH3 with steam reformation. Hydro power is not likely
to build NH3 since transportation is very important.
Phosphate Price....Green Markets pricing in June
indicated 35 cents for each pound of P in 11-52-0......APP
or 10-34-0 pricing is 39 cents per pound of P for the same
time period. Considering APP as being about twice as
efficient as 11-52-0 when superammoniated as
TAPPS....10-34-0 is a bargain due to the application
technique and the formulation.
Phosphoric acid was about the same price as 11-52-0 at 35
cents per pound of P....so no need to try to handle 0-70-0
and meter it uniformly with the current economics...Super
phosphoric acid is a very difficult material to meter and
handle considering a difference of 4 cents. But Super
Phosphoric acid has it's place in direct application, but
not many acres are applied.
has never been a good choice for super ammonization since it
is so heavily loaded with calcium and is the bottom of the
barrel at the Phosphate plant. Dry 11-52-0 can not be
delivered in an even uniform lineal band. Super ammonization
of 11-52-0 may form a good portion of non available rock
phosphate due to ammonization precipitate and high calcium
in the carrier.
that homogenous versions of dry P include 16-20-0-14S.
This is a good choice if you absolutely must use a dry P
source. Producers should not attempt use dry Zinc MNS with
dry P....dry Zn is cost prohibitive as dry zinc does not
perform as a homogenous blend....A homogenous APP/ATS blend
of ammoniated Zinc is at least 4 times more competitive.
Sulfur Price.....ATS or Thio-Sul as 12-0-0-26S is
manufactured in Billings, Montana, and Coffeeville, Kansas
by TKI. The pricing is 28 cents to 30 cents per pound of S.
Thio-Sul blends well with 10-34-0 and makes a homogenous
blend. A typical blend is 70% APP and 30% ATS.
Thio-Sul should never be used in the seed row. Exactrix
recommends that ATS be adjusted upward for oil seed
production. ATS is typically applied for band stabilization
at 10% of the NH3 flow.....somewhere between 2 and 3 gallons
per acre of ATS is typical with 7 gallons of APP. Sulfur
must be adjusted upward in low CEC soils.
Avail....Can be mixed with APP/ATS to improve the
polymer content. Avail may have some value for overwinter
stored APP to raise the polymer content.
Rotational Band Loading....Allows P to
become more available to the plant over time..Go to
Rotational Band Loading in No-till is a powerful management
Sinusoidial Flow....Dry fertilizers are
delivered in a sine wave flow and also a higher port to port
CV than Exactrix 2KC and 2KP, TAPPS Formulators go to
. Exactrix delivery systems of liquid APP and NH3 have no
sine wave flow. Go to
Bob & Dick Wittman reports
N as NH3 or
82-0-0, 22 cents per pound of N.
P as APP or
11-37-0*, 44 cents per pound of P. N valued at 22 cents.
S as ATS
or 12-0-0-26S, 37 cents per pound of S. N valued at 22 cents.
utilized in warmer climates, 10-34-0 preferred in colder climates.
Reacted in Shell
and TVA reactors. 12 sites in the state of Washington
Reacted in mobile
reactors on the Great Plains.
nutrient costs on the Great Plains
N as NH3 or
82-0-0, 30 cents per pound of N.
P as APP or
10-34-0, 40 cents per P and N.
S as ATS or
12-0-0-26s, 30 cents per pound of S and N.
Friday, Dec. 21, 07
Ordinary Protein $10.54
10% Protein $10.54.
11% Protein $10.74
11.5% Protein $10.87
12% Protein $10.87
13% Protein $10.99
13% Protein, Milling Quality Montana Origin $10.99
Larry Smith, University of
Idaho, Reports and Comments