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We are what we eat.
News about Coastal Bermuda Grass for 12 ton yields. March 10, 2019

Denver Museum of Natural History, July, 2016.

Northern Latitudes in Bear Country, At 1,400 lbs. and 57 degrees North. Kodiak Bears are much bigger than their cousins the Grizzly, Why?

Their diet is balanced and they eat all the time on Kodiak Island where the bears may not hibernate. The worlds largest carnivore is the Polar Bear at up to 2,200 lbs.

A true story from Kodiak,  during the darker winter months the Aleutian Brown Bears browse the flora and fauna including the garbage dumps.

An Aleutian Brown Bear living on high protein fish and a balanced super dose of micronutrients from herbs, berries, mammals and fish.    No argument, The food supply is critical in natural survival when you are a carnivore and a herbivore.

Natural selection and competition is where micro-nutrients begin to show up at the top of the food chain.
For us humans it is not much different,
we are what we eat.  

The balance of nutrients and micro nutrients is critical to our society.
It is no different with our western Cow/Calf operations grazing high protein Coastal Bermuda Grass.  

As stocker feeders go to the finish in the Great Plains feedlots the highest quality meat is sent to market.
This is a very critical story to our youngest generation and our connection to the land and the animals.  

Keeping the mother cow healthy around the year for another generation is a top priority.
Our society requires healthy parents and grand-parents to assure the youngest generation has a great chance.   

It all adds up to an most advanced society in the world with the American farmer/rancher providing the basics.
Highest quality soils with a balance of nutrients has paid tremendous dividends.



Stocker Feeders on Coastal Bermuda Grass.


At Lohn, Texas, a powerful tool is required to feed cows, to raise brewing barley, to provide fiber, feed and oil from cotton, and in rotation with winter wheat.  

The band spacing and the Exactrix tool allows TAPPKTS bands to go to the 7 to 8 inch depth at high speed under No-tillage.



The correct tool is critical to balance the plant nutrients and place those NPKS and Micro nutrients deep in the soil profile at 7 inch to 8 inch depth.   

Ben McClure operates a Mustang Tool Bar with a TAPPS Formulator on Winter Wheat and Coastal Bermuda Grass at Hugoton, KS in Mid-February, 2019.  

From the USDA-ARS at Tifton Ga.

Glenn W. Burton.  August 13, 16

5. Fertilize hybrid bermudagrasses properly. The following information involving many years of research and experience with Coastal bermudagrass generally applies equally well to Tifton 44, Tifton 78 and Tifton 85.

Most coastal plain soils are very low in plant nutrients. Without fertilizer, Coastal Bermuda will produce about 1.2 to 1.4 tons of hay and 180 pounds of protein per acre. With 600 pounds of N (nitrogen) per acre plus adequate amount of other nutrients, Coastal has produced 9 to 12 tons of hay and 2850 pounds of protein per acre (Table 1).

Table 1. Effect of nitrogen on the yield and protein content of Coastal Bermuda at Tifton, GA



Hay T/A cut every
4 wks.       6 wks.

Protein cut every
4 wks.      6 wks.






1.2           1.4

4.4          5.7

7.9          9.7

9.7        12.0

9.2          7.6

11.2         7.8  

15.2       11.3 

17.0       13.8  





                                                                                 P & K adequate 16% moisture hay

A. Nitrogen. Nitrogen, an essential component in protein is the fertilizer element that has the greatest effect on yield of hay and protein.

For 5 years, we compared six sources of nitrogen at rates of 100, 200, and 400 lbs. per acre applied to Coastal Bermuda cut 4 times per year at about 6-week intervals. The average 5-year results from the 400 pound rate are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2. Five-year effect of nitrogen source (400 lbs./A/yr.) on the yield and protein content of Coastal Bermuda.



Hay yield


yield lb./A

Anhydrous ammonia

Ammonium nitrate (solid)

Ammonium nitrate (Solution)

Ammonium nitrate (urea solution)


Ammonium sulfate



















P&K adequate

Anhydrous ammonia, the first product of fertilizer nitrogen manufacture, will always be the cheapest source. Because anhydrous ammonia is adsorbed on soil particles, it resists leaching more than nitrate sources.

Rates of anhydrous ammonia that can be applied at one time depend on the base exchange capacity of the soil and its moisture content. We successfully applied 400 lbs. of nitrogen (N) per acre to a Tifton loamy sand by running the applicator feet 7 in. deep. At this rate, the ammonia spread 6 in. from the point of release to give a core of treated soil 12 in. in diameter. The ammonia killed the microorganisms in much of the core which kept them from converting the ammonia to nitrate nitrogen until they could slowly move back into the sterilized soil. This overcame leaching losses that could have occurred had the ammonia N been quickly converted to the nitrate form. We believe that up to 400 lbs. of N per acre can be applied at one time with negligible loss on most soils having the proper moisture content. This would permit one application in March to satisfy the annual requirements for bermudagrass hay production. It would reduce application costs where many now apply only 100 lbs. of N per acre at a time. It would also do a better job of destroying undesirable soil organisms. G. R. Pirrung, Bainbridge, Ga. reports that deep placement of anhydrous ammonia has greatly reduced the fire ants in his hay fields.

In all of our research, we were never able to overcome the lag in spring response to anhydrous applications. This lag reduced the yield of the first cutting of hay by 0.5 ton and was found to be due to the placement of the ammonia in rows 16" apart. Sand culture studies proved that Coastal Bermuda can utilize ammonia nitrogen just as well as nitrate nitrogen. Many plants cannot. A broadcast application of 50 pounds of nitrate nitrogen by mid-March to make the nitrogen available to all new roots developing from the rhizomes should overcome this lag.

Surface applied urea nitrogen has been only about 80% as effective as ammonium nitrate pound per pound of N because the enzyme urease starts to break down urea to ammonia gas as soon as the urea comes in contact with the soil. The ammonia will be lost to the air until the urea moves into the soil by rainfall or irrigation. Our research proved that heat from the spring burn of Coastal bermuda temporarily destroyed the urease. Thus, urea can be surface applied for about two weeks after the spring burn without nitrogen loss to the air.


B. Potassium. Potassium (K), next to nitrogen, is the fertilizer element most lacking on the sandy soils of the Southeast. When potassium is deficient, Coastal develops tiny black or purple spots, its stand thins out, its yield is reduced and winter injury will be increased. Like most plants, Coastal will take up more K than it needs for optimum growth. Since this excess K has no nutritional value and does not increase the protein content of the grass, it is wasted.




Keep this waste to a minimum by applying 2 pounds of K20 for every 4 lbs. of N, splitting the annual application, and keeping the soil potassium at low to medium levels by soil test.

Applying a 4-1-2 (N-P205-K20) ratio fertilizer every time Coastal bermudagrass is fertilized will usually insure adequate potassium and avoid luxury consumption of this element where grazing returns K to the soil in urine and droppings.

For hay production where no K is returned, we think a 4-1-3 will insure that the grass receives adequate K if no N is applied without K.

From GJS, Based on this ARS report from Tifton, GA. Glenn W. Burton 8/13/16

To raise yields of 12 ton per acre with 2850 lbs. of protein per acre it takes 640 lbs. of N. The ratio of 4-1-2 would mean the KTS would be applied in bands. The new ratio would be 4N-1P-2K-1.33S.

One application of 640 lbs. N would require 128 lbs. P, 246 lbs. of K and 170 lbs. of Sulfur. 4.4 lbs. of AZn and a micro nutrient mix,

This would require 152 gallons of NH3, N/A -11 gallons per acre from 10-34-0 or 141 gallons of NH3 per acre.

P at 33 gallons of 10-34-0,

K at 82 gallons of KTS® which includes the Sulfur with 2 gallons AZn and 4 gallons per acre of a micro nutrient mix of balance materials.

How to produce 12 tons per acre of Coastal Bermuda Grass on Sandy Ground at Hugoton, KS. Some swine nitrogen high in sodium is also applied and highly inefficient.

Four applications are recommended per year.

1. After Freezing nights. October to Dec. Mustang Band 7 to 8 inch depth in a dormant crop. 35 gals. NH3, 8 gals. APP, 20 gals. KTS  and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per acre.

2. Following spring Green Up and before cows begin grazing, Mustang 7 to 8  inch depth at April 1 to April 15.   35 gals. NH3, 8 gals. APP, 20 gals. KTS  and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per acre.

3. Based on Weather and Workload. Mustang 7 to 8 inch deep Band late Mid-June or early July.  35 gals. NH3, 8 gals. APP, 20 gals. KTS  and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per acre.

4. Based on Workload and Weather Mustang 7 to 8 inch deep band again in mid to late August. 35 gals. NH3, 8 gals. APP, 20 gals. KTS  and .5 gal. AZn and 1 gal. Micros. At $64.00 per acre.

If the climate will not allow 12 tons per acre. If the yields of 6 tons per acre is more likely. Apply twice at period 1 and period 2.

Always apply Deep Bands with the Mustang Opener at 7 to 8 inch depth on the same AB line during the year with a 3.75 inch offset each pass. Do not cross band at angles to the previous pass. Try to avoid concentrating previous bands. Develop new roots outside of old rooting bands. This produces uniformity and lineal bands with multiple site access.  Cross banding should always be avoided at these rates.

Also consider NVDI. The images should produce areas of the field that have stress and improper irrigation.


Source for VRT-Site Specific.

Also consider Fulvic Acid in the mix with the APP/KTS and micros.

Plan on starting a Gypsum program with high uniformity to counter act the sodium from the swine effluent. That Gypsum should come from the Seaboard Group as with others faced with counter acting the high sodium content of the swine effluent.  

You many have an Iron Chlorosis problem.   

You may need to keep Iron Chlorosis observations on the burner….thus micros need to be big with Iron or third product Ferrilene.


11        12

The ultimate No-Till Crop. Avoiding top dress fertilizer increases the perennial life span.
Deep banding techniques reduce surface development of the root mass or sodding-in at the surface.
Place fertilizer where you want roots. Surgical cuts with Mustang openers develop roots that can handle drought stress.


Good stands are better winter survival occurs when Mustang TAPPKTS formulators band balanced nutrients deeper in the soil. Mustangs provide surgical cuts using Exactrix extreme double edge blades assures nutrients are vermiculated  

C. Phosphorus. Phosphorus is very deficient in virgin soils but may often be in fair supply in old cultivated fields. Phosphorus is important in animal nutrition and is less likely to be wasted due to luxury consumption. Much research has shown that 1 lb. of P205 for each 4 lbs. of nitrogen will generally meet the needs of the grass and the animals that consume it. Adding extra quantities of phosphorus will not increase protein, carotene, or xanthophyll content of the forage and some of the extra will be fixed in a form the grass cannot use.

D. Secondary elements, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Coastal Bermuda has need for all of these elements. However, if super phosphate is used to supply the phosphorus needs of the grass, its calcium and sulfur requirements will also be satisfied. If not, substituting ammonium sulfate nitrogen for about 1/6 of the nitrogen applied should satisfy the sulfur needs of the grass. Liming with dolomitic limestone will satisfy Coastal’ s needs for calcium and magnesium.

E. Minor elements. Coastal bermudagrass has failed to give a significant response to minor elements applied to sandy soils in Georgia. Coastal Bermuda is a strong feeder for these elements and will be able to satisfy its needs from the soil under most circumstances. Heavy fertilization that will remove 8 - 10 tons of hay annually will also remove minor elements and can eventually lower their soil levels to the point that they must be replaced with fertilizer.

F. Fertilize at the proper time. Coastal bermudagrass needs fertilizer as soon as spring growth begins. For maximum efficiency, make the 1st application about March 15 or 1 week after the last average 32E temperature. Fertilizer applied much earlier may be lost by leaching or feeding winter weeds. Apply about 1/4 of the annual fertilizer application March 15 and after the next 3 cuttings on about May 15, June 25, and Aug 1 to keep yields and protein content of each cutting more uniform.




Crystalline TAPPS, Exactrix
® Application Chemistry Drives Nutrient Efficiency In All Soil Types.




Who is Glenn W. Burton? Why was he so outstanding? Was he a good leader of plant breeders and agronomists?

  • He started out in Nebraska with his father farming with horse drawn equipment.
  • He lived in Clatonia and Bartley, NE.
  • He was sought out by his high school principal to become a vocational ag teacher.
  • At UNL he was advised to become a geneticist by Franklin Keim, his advisor.
  • He is a UNL and Rutgers genetics major that spent his long USDA career in Tifton GA and yet traveled to 55 foreign countries from 1936  to 2005.
  • He was able to watch another famous UNL geneticist George Beadle of Wahoo, NE receive the Nobel prize in genetics 1958.
  • Another famous geneticist in his time line received and the Nobel prize for feeding a hungry planet, Norman Bourlaug.  Glenn W. Burton is considered an equivalent.
  • Glenn Burton is the father of Hybrid Coastal Bermuda Grass(1943) and Hybrid Pearl Millet.
  • He help triple yields in Pearl Millet in India and added an additional 1 billion pounds of live beef to the American economy in his life time.
  • Ronald Regan presented him with the nations highest award from the National Academy of Science in 1982.
  • Hybridization and “sprig” planting allowed a difficult weed to become a highly valuable plant based on Glenn W. Burton’s vision and dedication.

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