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Glossary of Terms
Greenhouse Gas, GHG: Three types of GHG have combined to form the climate change problem currently challenging our planet. The ice caps at both ends of the planet are melting at a rapid rate. The oceans are warming, and the sea level is changing. The loss of primary agricultural production areas is proposed by scientists. The conclusion is that the overheated planet will no longer be able to sustain life as we know it in another 100 years.
CO2, Carbon Dioxide: At 72% of the total, CO2 is the primary gas in the total Green House Gas by weight. Too much carbon is now in the air, heating or trapping heat. CO2 comes primarily from fossil fuel for power, industrial process, and transportation. It also comes from the mining and processing of fossil fuel and the burning of biomass.
CH4, Methane: The primary gas in natural gas, CH4 results in 20% of the Green House Gas problem. Natural gas has 18 additional gases that are removed in processing plants before entering the pipeline. Another source of CH4 is the belching rumen of the bovine herds in feedlots, about 12 million of the total 105 million cattle in the US. The US Cattle herd is about the same mass as our original Buffalo herd which weighed about twice as much as feedlot cow headed to slaughter. So the emission from the bovine Cattle herd is not quite as bad as we may think. In fact there is no accounting for all the wildlife that has been removed from wolf packs, elk herds, deer herds, Moose and bears that emit CH4. Yet another source of methane and 18 other gases to make methane is oil, gas, and coal production. The mining and handling retrieval of methane results in a 34.5% loss to the environment of 20% total contribution.
N2O, Nitrous Oxide: Highly potent, one molecule of N2O is equivalent to 300 molecules of CO2. The primary source is agricultural production of fertilized crops at 62.5%. N2O is a nasty material produced by Nitrosomonas bacteria. It contributes to 5% of all GHG but is 300 times more potent than CO2 in the environment. Surface applied, shallowly applied and improperly timed nutrients such as nitrogen and the combined nitrogen complexes of phosphate, potassium and sulfur are easily lost to the environment if they are not banded deep in the soil. Band centers or spaces between bands have proven to best on 15 inch centers and 10 inch to 30 inch is used. Banding nutrients deeper in the soil in an anaerobic zone at 6 to 8 inches makes nutrients highly crop available for present and future crops. The NPKS surface-applied and shallow-applied nitrogen and phosphate nutrients are over applied due to lack of efficiency and can result in loss to the atmosphere and in going into the drinking water. When a Nitrosomonas bacteria process of nitrification occurs in the soil, the natural process produces negative valence mobile nitrate to follow the water flow downward and outward in the soil profile.
Green Play Ammonia™, NH3: Three atoms of hydrogen sourced from water and one atom of nitrogen sourced from the atmosphere are processed into 82.5% nitrogen and 17.5% hydrogen as pure Anhydrous Ammonia. The hydrogen H2 is released from the electrolysis of H2O. The oxygen O2 goes back into the atmosphere and hydrogen H2 is captured. The H2 hydrogen is used in a German Haber Bosch process. The H2 is a syngas of the purest original type. No fossil fuels are used to build Green Play Ammonia, and no sulfur products and additional gases need to be removed. The original manufacture of all industrial and metallurgical Anhydrous Ammonia was done with electrolysis from hydroelectric dams. Yara is the largest ammonia manufacturer in the world and originally started with hydroelectric dams in Norway. The same is true of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), which started in World War 1 with Wilson Dam on the Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals. Approximately 10,000 KW are required to build one short ton of ammonia.
Yielder® NFuel Energy: Used as a registered trademark of Exactrix® Global Systems, the NFuel refers to energy sourced from NH3. About 50% of the plants’ Green Play Ammonia production is utilized for the energy market. The energy levels in ammonia are clean and devoid of carbon. NH3 is one of the best materials on earth for reducing greenhouse gas and cooling the planet. Green Play Ammonia™ can now be used in Selective Catalytic Reaction (SCR) in coal-fired power plants to shave out emissions. The diesel engine can be dual fueled with Green Play Ammonia. A hydrogen cracker can be added to run a strong 20% hydrogen mix into the diesel engine. Fueling can be inclusive of Green Play Bio Diesel from soybeans or canola. The dual markets of energy and crop production allow even greater economic results and lower risk.
Anhydrous Ammonia: NH3 is the second largest industrial process in the world behind sulfuric acid production. Ammonia production was developed in 1908 through 1910 by chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch at Max Planck Institute in Berlin. Albert Einstein was good friends with Fritz Haber, which provides a moment of serendipity thinking about how to build the critical material. Ammonia was further perfected on an industrial scale by Carl Bosch (BASF) at Ludwigshafen, Germany in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Ludwigshafen lost about two-thirds of its population in World War 2, and it was a major contributor to the Nazi war machine. During the 1930’s to 1945 Ammonia was directly applied to the land at experiment stations in Mississippi and Shell Chemical Company in California. It was bubbled into furrow irrigation water in Orange groves in California in the 1940’s.Ammonia became a west coast phenomenon whereby it was shank applied pre-plant on black summer fallow fields using shanks. In fact the tanks were physically changed with the tank on the applicator went empty. Ammonia drove away the Alfalfa rotation of the west coast and by 1955 to 1959 Alfalfa was phased out of rotation creating massive soil erosion in the west. By 2018, 175 metric tons of NH3 were produced. China produced the most NH3 in the world at 44 million metric tons. China’s 80 Ammonia plants only use natural gas in 16 plants. Its other 64 plants the China production scheme is to use coal, which emits two tons of CO2 per ton of ammonia. Natural gas is about half at just over one ton CO2 per ton of ammonia. Green Play Ammonia is zero tons. The fossil fuel ammonia plants produce 1.8% of the CO2 total emission into the atmosphere. Ammonia is not a carcinogen, but it is an inhalation hazard and should be handled by experienced personnel. It is not listed as explosive and is therefore much safer to use than hydrogen, propane and natural gas. Our planet can support only 1/3 of the population or 2.1 billion people without the advancement of Anhydrous Ammonia. How critical is NH3 to our 7.8 billion population? Roughly two-thirds of the planet population, or 5.7 billion, would not be able to sustain itself without NH3.
As you watch an NFL football game you begin to understand that only 1/3 of the stadium attendees actually have a seat and afford a ticket. About 2/3 of the stadium is empty. NH3 is critical to our society as we know it today.
Directly Applied Anhydrous Ammonia: NH3 is directly applied to soil in North America as a general means to apply nutrients in fall work period. It is the only primary nitrogen product that can be applied in the fall period before winter sets in. Ammonia properly applied is being stable in the soil. The NH3 is dual applied with P, K and Thio-sulfates, Zinc Sulfates and Zinc Acetates when fall banding. The fall banding produces high efficiency with snow melt moisture evenly percolated into the No-tillage soils. The early spring nutrients and late spring side dressing of NPKS and Zn nutrients are dual applied with NH3 at a typical 3-to-1 ratio of nitrogen to P and K. NH3 is also directly applied at time of seeding in winter and spring wheat and winter and spring barley production. NH3 is also fall applied pre-plant and spring applied prior to seeding or following seeding to spring canola in Canada. NH3 can also be pre-plant indexed directly under each Canola row using RTK guidance on 10 inch and 12 inch centers. Since farms are large in Alberta and Saskatchewan Anhydrous Ammonia is preferred because of the long distance and low transport cost. The preferred material NH3 is also applied after the harvest of winter wheat in June in Kansas, allowing a double crop of soybeans under dryland and irrigated Kansas conditions. Sunflowers are also a double crop or two crops in one production year, using Anhydrous Ammonia following a winter wheat harvest. The TAPPKTS product is banding directly into the winter wheat stubble in June and July. Almost all cotton production is done with NH3 since cotton does not respond well to second-tier and third-tier products Urea and Solution 32 and Solution 28 which is 25% nitrate nitrogen. Sugar beets also prefer NH3 directly applied at 1% CV as less molasses is generated since the plant is much more efficient with Ammonia than nitrate.
Directly applied, 82.4% nitrogen allows millions of acres to be planted in a timely manner without the constantly refilling of Urea at 46% N, Uran at 32% N, and Uan at 28% N. Directly applied ammonia must be banded deep in the soil in tight, narrow bands of single-disc, No-tillage openers such as Mustang P-51C openers. The Exactrix high-pressure NH3 applied at 1% CV (Coefficient of Variation) with multiple ports of application in liquid streaming flows is therefore much more crop available and truly more efficient. An 18% energy loss occurs if plants must step nitrate back to ammonium or NH4. All commercial crops prefer Ammonium since there is few disease problems by a factor of 35 to 45 times less disease potential.
Triple Super Ammonization. Ammoniated Phosphate: During this process, three parts Ammonia N are reacted with one-part Phosphate. The analysis would be 120-40-0 to as low as 30-10-0. This dual-product process can only occur in the soil since the soil can contain the store the product at 9.5 pH. If applied to the surface, the product would be lost to the atmosphere. The process equipment requires two meters, a 2KC NH3 high-pressure injector and a 2KM liquid pressure injector. The two injection points do not freeze or bond to the injection equipment. Ammonia 82-0-0 is injected into the flow of the Poly Phosphate, 10-34-0. Ammonium Polyphosphate is 10-34-0, while Ammonium Phosphate is 11-48-0 to 11-55-0 and typically safe in the seed row. Di-ammonium Phosphate is 18-46-0 and is a broadcast material.
Ammonium Poly Phosphate. 10-34-0 and 11-37-0: 10-34-0 at 1.4 lbs. N and 3.89 lbs. P per gallon weighing 11.7 lbs per gallon as 10-34-0, 11-37-0 is also common in the Western US and is 12 lbs. per gallon. Rated as the greatest development of phosphate application and high plant utilization efficiency, the Ammonium Poly Phosphate advanced material was developed simultaneously by the Tennessee Valley Authority and Shell Chemical in 1965. Since then, 30,000 gallon rail cars of ammonia and 30,000 gallon super phosphate black acid rail cars are shipped direct from the factory to the fertilizer dealer for the TVA, Shell reaction process in a cross tube reactor.
This lowers cost and allows good profit margins for the fertilizer dealer by not transporting water. The reactor brings 82% N ammonia, water and 68-0-0 black phosphoric acid together at 750 degrees F to produce a clear, 100 mesh filtered material used to carry micronutrient metals like zinc or manganese. The material is 70% polymer and 30% ortho. The 70% polymer carries the metals or micronutrients like zinc and manganese at a 12 to 1 ratio or greater depending on temperature. Thus a homogenous delivery of micro nutrients in a streaming flow allows plants to absorb micro nutrients at low cost rates.
Poly phosphate should not be stored in warm temperatures above 85 degrees F. It should be applied immediately, or it can be stored well at temperatures below 85 degrees F. It is typically used within 30 days of manufacture. Triple super ammonization of Ammonium Poly Phosphate in the soil results in a higher pH of 9.5. This allows the plant roots to find the placed P and flourish in the diffusion zone around the placed P. At this high 9.5 pH the metal calcium will not be able to sequester the placed Ammonium Poly Phosphate. The same is true in very low pH soils of 4.5 to 5.5 pH where aluminum, iron and magnesium will sequester the placed Ammonium Poly Phosphate. Thus, when combined with NH3, 82-0-0 in the soil, the 10-34-0 results in a column of protected and crystallized nutrients, whereby placed P with micro-nutrients remains crop available for many years at banded depths of 6 to 8 inches.
Phosphate Chemistry: Phosphate is 100 times more reactive than Ammonia Nitrogen. Phosphoric acid is used to etch and clean steel in metal processing, while 82% agricultural grade ammonia stores well in steel tanks and is very compatible with the inside of steel tanks for 50 years. Phosphate reacts with all metals rapidly, including calcium in the soil. The world’s most successful herbicide is built from phosphate, Roundup. The EPA considers glyphosate to have low toxicity when used at the recommended doses. Roundup or glyphosate application to weeds does not work well if the leaves are dusty, especially in the tire tracks of sprayers. Lake Erie pollution and the floral bloom are mostly related to the surface application of dry phosphate 11-52-0 in winter months at very high rates. A runoff occurs in the spring and summer creating a bloom. Crop availability is a critical decision to justify applying phosphate, which is very expensive and a depleting resource.
TAPPS, TAPPS+Zn,Mn, Triple Super Ammonization: Tri-Ammonium Poly Phosphate with a blend of Ammonium Thio-Sulfate is TAPPS when applied at 1% CV in liquid streaming flows utilizing NH3 82-0-0, Ammonium Poly Phosphate 10-34-0 and Ammonium Thio-Sulfate 12-0-0-26S. Included are ammoniated or chelated micronutrients Zn and Mn.
TAPPKTS, TAPPKTS+Zn,Mn, Triple Super Ammonization: Tri-Ammonium Poly Phosphate with a blend of Potassium Thio-Sulfate is TAPPKTS when applied at 1% CV in liquid streaming flows of NH3 82-0-0, Ammonium Poly Phosphate 10-34-0, and Potassium Thio-Sulfate 0-0-17-26S. Included are ammoniated or chelated micronutrients Zn and Mn.
Coefficient of Variation at 1%: The 1% CV calculation is used to determine the variation of each NH3 port and each liquid fertilizer APP/ATS port of delivery forming TAPPS and TAPPKTS. Two different products are delivered on a collision in the soil forming a crystal. An example of 1% CV would be chemicals applied at 100 pounds per acre, where one pound of 100 pounds applied is not crop available and there is a 95% chance exists that the CV value will repeat again. Some CVs are as high as 33% to 50% in fertilizer application. This means the risk has become very high and the chance of using the material successfully may have a 50% loss.
The 50% balance is lost into the environment. Uniformity is often mentioned in scientific presentations, but seldom do producers understand how critical uniformity of application is to the success with chemicals. Producers may only think of the per-acre rate as being targeted and found to be excellent for costing. Some producers think they can apply twice and get a uniform application. The CV gets worse the more the producer uses the inaccurate applicator on a windy day.
• The coefficient of variation (CV) is a statistical measure of the dispersion of data points in a data series around the mean.
• In finance, the coefficient of variation allows investors to
determine how much volatility, or risk, is assumed in comparison
• The lower the ratio of the standard deviation to mean return, the better risk-return tradeoff.
• Knowing there is a 95% chance the event will happen again as calculated allows good decisions to be made.
Binary Banding, with P-51 Openers as the Key: Using the indexing technique of twin bands of placed nutrients, a corn root system can absorb nutrients immediately after planting. Starter fertilizer can be dropped, saving $20 per acre. The corn row is placed directly on top of the primary index band on 30-inch centers. One more secondary band joins the root pattern of the primary row. This rooting party starts six weeks after the planting of the corn. The result of correct timing and secondary band geometry is a V-5 status of the corn growth cycle. This period is the extreme period of elongation as the plant grows extremely fast in late June and early July in Nebraska conditions. The root system reaches about 7 inches to the side of the row and finds the second stable binary band in perfect alignment with the primary stable band. This provides more nutrients, and especially zinc and manganese just when the plant needs more. This cousin or twin sister of the main band can also be adjusted to be stronger or weaker or to have more zinc and less phosphate. The powerful technique is one easy to adapt to by strip till farmers.
Liquid Streaming Flows at 1% CV: Streaming flows in lineal bands allow the plant roots to access balanced NPKS and micronutrients such as Zn, Mn. Jerky applications of dry fertilizer cannot reduce nutrient use due to voids in the band, and as a result micronutrients must be way overapplied. The key point is to look at the injection flow as you would observe a hypodermic needle injecting a vaccine into your body. No bubbles or voids can be in the flow, and the delivery must be exact for the liquid vaccine. Applying too much could make a person very sick, while applying too little could produce poor resistance to disease. The nurse injects with a steady pressure so the blood system can absorb the flow in a steady and uninterrupted stream. Bubbles in the flow are avoided, and it is steady and uniform.
Thio-Sul® or ATS, Ammonium Thio-Sulfate: At 11.15 pounds per gallon at 12-0-0-26S, 1.1 lbs. N and 2.89 lbs. S per gallon this is a combination performance material with two sources of sulfur. Elemental sulfur and sulfate sulfur are used to build proteins and test weight in the plant and improve chlorophyll. Micronutrients in the soil are oxidized as the Thio-Sul produces a pH swing from base to acid. A key strength of Thio-Sul is its so-called triple threat performance thanks to the nitrogen stability it offers by delaying conversion to mobile nitrate. The delay is caused by a reaction with the copper co-factor of Nitrosomonas. This allows the plant to absorb the straight ammonium the plant prefers over nitrate. An 18% energy conversion is saved by keeping the NH4 as NH4.
KTS® or Potassium Thio-Sulfate, 0-0-25-17S: At 12 pounds per gallon or 3 lbs. K and 2.1 lbs. S per gallon. Developed and marketed by Tessenderlo Kerley Inc. and now available from 5 other manufacturers, the material performs well in cold weather and provides high crop availability when blended with phosphate to help form TAPPKTS with Zn and Mn. Potassium is known to perform best when banded. Often it takes 10 to 15 times more pounds of Potassium Chloride surface applied to get a response in the production of Coastal Bermuda Grass as compared to banded TAPPKTS plus Zn and Mn. The economic threshold response of KTS or Potassium Thio-Sulfate has been surprisingly good after 10 years of use.
Urea Ammonium Nitrate, URAN and UAN: The third-tier nitrogen product is used for salvage and convenience in crop production. It involves 25% mobile nitrate, 50% urea and 25% Ammonium or three types of nitrogen. These products are very corrosive to steel. They are also dangerous to the environment when over applied. The Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia and Rhine River contamination is directly related to these products incorrectly applied at too high of a rate.
Urea: Known as a second-tier nitrogen product, urea is not primary nitrogen like the Anhydrous Ammonia or Aqua Ammonia that are immediately crop available. The 46-0-0 product combines CO2 into granules to build a carbamide. It is a CO2 based material with two NH2 molecules attached. The CO2 must be released into the environment before NH4 can be formed. As a result, Urea should not receive a carbon credit since it is built from CO2 coming from the fossil fuel ammonia plant. Urea is normally surface applied and must go through a conversion process before it is crop available. Urea works very poorly when banded in the cold, wet soils of the Rocky Mountain valleys since it does not convert in time to be useable in spring cropping. Being surface applied on 7.5 pH soil causes 30% to 50% of the urea to volatilize and to be lost into the atmosphere. The nitrous oxide emission from surface application is much higher than banded Exactrix TAPPS and TAPPKTS with Zn and Mn.
Micronutrients: Typically used in small amounts from 2 pounds per acre to .05 pounds per acre, these micronutrient metals are vital in the formation of proteins and amino acids, plus they allow favorable bacteria like Yeast to flourish in the soil. The micronutrients are naturally occurring metals that can be ammoniated or chelated. They are zinc, manganese, copper, iron, moly, boron and sometimes nickel and selenium. Silver may be a micronutrient and is being investigated. Rare earth is not understood but promoted in China. Micronutrients like ammoniated zinc are always used with TAPPS and TAPPKTS on the Great Plains. A new micronutrient product called Tra-Fix Zn, Mn is showing good promise using Asset technology.
No-tillage Deep Band: Banding at a depth of 6 to 9 inches in narrow opener slots of .375 inch width reduces the diffusion zone and concentrates the band of TAPPKTS, which reduces the feeding sites for Nitrosomonas. The band is most stable at this depth since the zone is anaerobic or has very little oxygen to support soil microbes like Nitrosomonas.
Ammoniated: Ammonia is introduced into the PKS and micros fertilizer manufacturing process with this technique. It provides a better target and a synergism between such products as NH3 and phosphate, plus potassium is much more efficient when it is ammoniated. All starter fertilizers include ammonia for quick nitrogen uptake. Nitrate fertilizers are not used for starter fertilizers. A costly fertilizer built by Ortho did have some nitrate in 27-12-0-14S. That nitrate in the 27 analysis or 50% of the N value was wasted since plants like corn, wheat and cotton cannot use nitrate in the first 30 days.
NPKS+Zn,Mn: The name includes the chemical nutrients found in TAPPKTS plus zinc and manganese.
Nitrosomonas: A bacterium known as the "bandito and archenemy of nitrogen," Nitrosomonas converts NH4 or Ammonium to mobile nitrate and can form N2O nitrous oxide from NO2 nitrite. Much of the fertilizer loss into the environment comes from Nitrosomonas activity. The material N-serve specifically targets Nitrosomonas. Zinc and metals that include sulfur materials will also stall out the Nitrosomonas by binding up the co-factor, Copper. Nitrosomonas is found primarily in the aerobic zone or in the top 4 to 5 inches of the soil profile. Another bacteria critical to nitrification is Nitrobacter. It takes the Nitrite N20 molecule and oxidizes it to form NO3, which is negative valence and follows soil water to the bottom, to the side, and to the top. Nitrate is actually responsible for about 500 diseases of corn, cotton and wheat.
NFuel: NH3 used as fuel for engines, SCR, heating and rocket engines. NFuel can also be cracked for the H2 only. NFuel stores well in steel pressure vessels. NFuel is a battery when hydrogen storage is made economically. NFuel transports much safer than H2, Hydrogen. NFuel is the success story primed and ready to happen in the hydrogen economy.
Cover Cropping: When an economic growing crop is moving to maturity, cover cropping seeding is a means to protect the soil and maintain a green link in the soil life. The soil can stay alive and operate as a powerful organism colony. Cover cropping is used in short rotations, where more rain falls than the crop needs. It is a mix of up to 14 different species that function independently and together in cool weather and warm weather. The technique is a powerful additional tool to drive No-till farming and harvest carbon.
Fumigant Cover Cropping: Continuous rotations of corn require an interloping fumigation to maintain good yields. Fumigation with cyanide gas from plant glucosinolates reduces nematodes when crops like fumigant mustard are planted in the early spring. Spring is when nematodes move up to the top three feet of the soil. Another great choice for fumigation is winter rape and winter canola, which have much deeper roots and more soil mass coverage. Thus, winter canola and winter rape provide longer term suppression of nematodes.
Syngas: This resource can be produced from many sources, including natural gas, coal, biomass, or virtually any hydrocarbon feedstock, by reaction with steam, carbon dioxide, or oxygen. Syngas is a crucial intermediate resource for the production of hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen, the gasification of coal, biomass, and in some types of waste-to-energy gasification facilities.
NG or Natural Gas: Natural is a misnomer since natural gas comes from oil field gas and must be processed before becoming CH4 or methane. Oil field gas has 18 different gasses present that must be removed to make syngas methane for the steam reformation of ammonia production.
Electrolysis: The original method to make NH3, this process is broadly use and an electrical current is applied to distilled water and H2 and O2 are split off to create NH3. The H2 immediately goes to the Haber Bosch processor. Haldor Topsoe, https://www.topsoe.com, is the major manufacturer of efficient electrolyzers in big NH3 plants using wind power. Yara is the major builder of NH3 using electrolyzers and wind power.
Non Fossil Fuels, Photo Voltaic or PV, Wind Turbine, Water Turbine, Biomass, Ethanol, Bio Diesel, Nuclear Sources of Power: These developments are the future of low greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuels may not be able to compete in cost, performance, and making hydrogen and NH3 fuel availability more local. Locally built energy has a pleasant result when GHG is removed from the process. Fossil Fuels will never be replaced….but a big tonnage or volume dent needs to occur immediately. Every sector of the economy is looking for overwhelming progress in solving the GHG problem.
Aerobic Depth: Infrared light will not penetrate beyond this soil depth of 4 inches to 5 inches. As a result, the soil surface 4 to 5 inches contains good oxygen, thus allowing high levels of bacterial and fungal activity. The aerobic zone is loaded with carbon and exchange products that build soils and feed microflora.
Anaerobic Depth: Considered the topsoil or plow layer, this soil depth from 4 inches to 10 inches allows very little oxygen to exist that would allow bacteria to proliferate in this zone. Roots introduce exchange products in the root zone. Nitrous Oxide does has very little chance to form up if No-tillage nutrients are place deep in the soil in tight narrow bands of TAPPKTS plus Zinc and Manganese. Cover cropping is also key to develop soils and keep Nitrous Oxide to a minimum.
Oligarch: Not quite a monopolist like Andrew Carnegie of Carnegie Steel becoming JP Morgan’s U.S. Steel or John Rockefeller with Standard Oil, the Oligarch companies of North America still maintain a firm, unrelenting grip and international grip on the fertilizer market. Oligarchs regionally control prices and out compete others that want to enter the marketplace. The sheer size and political weight of Oligarchs may allow their existence under federal anti-trust in geographic regions, which can actually build national economic strength but hurt producer land values and the ability to borrow to buy land or equipment. It is a fine line of truth and blind trust in the Oligarch in Kansas conditions. On the Great Plains of America and in the Pacific Northwest, NH3 is presently controlled by three Oligarchs: Koch Nitrogen or the Koch brothers, Nutrien of Calgary, Alberta and CF Industries of Deerfield, IL. While their operations may be totally legal, they have taken unfair advantage of producers when it comes to nutrient price and delivery. Their pricing over the last 15 years on the Great Plains robbed producers of $150 billion in land value in Kansas alone with the closure of producer owned Farmland. More affordable ammonia was stopped as a function of natural gas pricing after 2003 when the Koch brothers purchased Farmland Industries of Kansas City. Market to bear pricing was introduced because the Oligarchs could force prices higher by controlling supply and or forcing producers to use higher cost products like Urea, URAN and UAN. It is well known how they did it but no one wants to take on the Oligarch
Nitrogen Types: Primary nitrogen is NH3 at 82% N in the first tier. Convenience nitrogen is Urea at 46% N in the second tier and has CO2 added. Salvage and convenience nitrogen is 32% and 28% third-tier production with three types of nitrogen included. Orchard and convenience nitrogen is Calcium Ammonium Nitrate or Can 17 and 100% mobile nitrate. It is used to stimulate tree roots and is not a commercial crop production material.
Maximum tillage uses a total flop-over of surface residues sent to the
plow layer. Minimum tillage uses a vertical shank to shatter the soil and
leave residue on top.