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Relay Intercrop, Yockey
Visual identification of TAPPS in dual placement.
NH3 when combined with 10-34-0 and Thio-Sul formulates a highly available nutrient package.
The white crystals shown are Tri-ammonium poly phosphate. Thee most available commercial form or placed P in cereal crop production.
When combined with ATS the band becomes more stable and remains ammonic state about 6 weeks longer as tested at Aurora, Nebraska in 2004.
Tri-ammonium poly phosphate sulfate is TAPPS.....or NH3, APP, and ATS.
Exactrix Nutrient Uniformity Test plots in Kansas and Nebraska were designed around the Ortho ratio using TAPPS. The plots will be harvested in October, 2004.
The Ortho ratio, developed by Chevron Chemical, Jim and Gordon Thorpe is a consistent performing nutrient ratio for cereal grains. The ratio is 27-12-0-7S. The Ortho ratio is a used at 5 different rates to confirm the point of diminishing returns.
Crops raised on soils with varying pH and low OM or varying OM respond to dual placement techniques.
Band spacing of 15 inch or less are required in most cropping systems..... . 10" and 7.5" band spacings are acceptable and desirable especially in spring cropping systems. Follow Exactrix Guidelines on Band Concentration when applying the Ortho Ratio.
Bands of 15 inch or less applied pre-plant to corn production result in applications just prior to planting without burning corn and corn roots even in very high pH soils. Nutrients should be timed to the cropping cycle. The longer nutrients are in the soil the greater the risk becomes of utilizing the nutrients. To obtain top yields always time the nutrients to just before planting, planter applied or side dress.
This is not a new practice. However, machinery often limits TAPPS applied use on 15 inch or less band centers. Yield increases of 20% or greater are often achieved over other types of techniques of nutrient application, timing, and formulation.
VRT applications are now much more efficient with the uniform application and timing of the three materials. Low CV application is only possible with banded and placed liquid NH3, APP and ATS.
Timing of nutrient application to the crop planting or seeding is absolutely critical for top yields and highest efficiency. In the case of winter wheat in the PNW it may be more important to side dress the major application on NP and S to early spring into the growing winter wheat using single disc openers. About 70% of nutrients are consumed in the top 18 inches of soil. Confirming, since timing is involved, application of TAPPS is a producer driven system.
Nitrogen stabilization does occur when Thio-Sul is present in the band. Sulfur adds value since sulfur is now removed from the emissions of the coal fired power generation plants. High sulfur soils also respond to Thio-Sul band placement. Sulfur is critical for building protein in cereal grains.
Oil seed production requires about twice as much S as other crops. In 2004 mustard production at Aurora, Nebraska, oil content of 43% was achieved with norm being 38% using Thio-Sul in the TAPPS band of NH3 and APP. Thio-Sul is providing the necessary sulfur to produce high oil content.
In DNS Wheat production following the Ortho Ratio, very high protein was achieved in the 15% to 16% range. The variety Express produced the highest yields. A deep orange color was observed in the straw at harvest at Aurora, NE. Some of the highest proteins in the nation were produced in irrigated systems. Thio-Sul and side dress application of the nutrients produced this high nutrient efficiency at Aurora, NE.
It is now possible to side dress wheat using single disc openers that band the nutrients in the root zone without crop damage and very little soil disturbance.
The longer the placed nutrients are in the soil the greater the risk becomes of reducing nutrient efficiency and lowering yield expectations.
John Yockey, September 12, 04
Review, Westbred Varieties, Tool Bar Application, Timing of Nutrients, Dark Northern Spring Wheat and Soybeans in Relay Intercrop at Grand Island/Aurora, Nebraska
At several locations Express is outperforming, 936, 926 and Hank in high rainfall and irrigated conditions....however, please note that a 4 year study, 98/02, at the dryland research station, Moccasin, Montana,..... indicates the dryland yields for high rainfall or irrigated Express were about 38.4 Bu./A or 2.2 bushels higher than the favorite or standard choice, McNeal.
A total of 16 varieties were tested. The variety 936 was 3% less than Express at 37.1 bu/A. The variety 936 is a later improved release to 926 and was chosen by Westbreed to replace 926. Hank has also been selected to replace 926. The varieties 926 and Hank were seeded at Grand Island/Aurora, NE since the maturity is about 5 days ahead of Express. The varieties 926 and Hank are considered dryland DNS wheats.
Express can average 140 bushels per acre in a potato rotation at Hermiston,Oregon under center pivots seeded in mid-February with harvest in early July. It would appear that Express is the best variety choice. Express did meet the yield goal of 60 bushels per acre at 16% protein. Yield goals will be set higher in 2005 to 100 bushels per acre. This will require high levels of management which should reduce risk.
Current market price at Portland,Oregon, Friday, September 10, 04 was $5.38 per bushel DNSW of 15% guaranteed protein. Thus market price for DNSW is about $1.50 less at Denver, Con Agra. High quality Dark Northern Spring Wheat does traditionally bring $1 to $1.50 more per bushel more than winter wheat. No price was quoted for 16% protein at Portland but the trend indicated about 50 cents additional premium for 1% increase in protein. It could be assumed that the Portland price to be $5.88 per bushel or $4.38 per bushel at Denver for 16% guaranteed protein.
In Relay Intercrop production at Grand Island/Aurora, Nebraska ....Westbred varieties Express produced 5 tillers....Hank and 926 produced 3 tillers based on 3/4" in row seed spacing using Deere 750 single disc openers.
Yields of Express were about 30% to 40% higher than Hank or 926 at Grand Island/Aurora. Rod row samples indicated 107 bushels per acre at filling. However, Head Scab or Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) reduced yields at least 60%.
The DNSW seedings were on 15" average row spacing at 3/4" seed spacing or about 1 million plants per acre. The actual row spacing was 2 rows 10" apart with a 20" dead band for the soybeans. The seeding date was March 11-13, 04.
Application of NPS nutrients occurred at the 3 leaf stage side dressed 4/7/04, Grand Island/Aurora Relay Intercrop.....An Exactrix single disc tool bar with dual placement capability applied on 15" band centers....paired bands 12" apart on the 30" ridge center or 12/18. Also seed row application of 100 pounds, dry 16-20-0-14S and KCL was applied with a Valmar air delivery system into the seed row Deere 750 opener.
The yield goals for DNSW were set a 60 bushel per acre this first year in the Relay Intercrop. An Ortho ratio was followed at 125 pounds of N as NH3, 55 pounds of P as 10-34-0 and 35 pounds of S as Thio-Sul. Soil pH varied from 5.2 to 6.5. Soil OM varied 1% from 1.5% to 2.5%. The seeding occurred between March 11 to 13, 04 on seed corn rotation which raises FHB potential.
The Yield Goal for the soybeans was set at 60 bushels per acre. Any residual unused nutrients from the DNSW crop would be utilized by the soybeans. The soybeans were in exceptional good shape as they emerged from the canopy.
FHB reduced overall wheat yields to the 41 bushel/A range for all three varieties. Based on rod row samples yields were potentially much higher (107 bu./A) even on wide 15" row spacing. However,.. Protein reached rather lofty marks of 14.9% to 15.9% and test weight came in at 59 pounds per bushel. Falling Numbers test has not been implemented. The Express yielded about 30% higher or approximately 60 bushels per acre with a 60% infestation of FHB.
No Folicur was applied to DNS Wheat since Nebraska growers do not have the label....one of the few wheat producing states that does not have the Section 18 label. Folicur must be applied with dual nozzles tilted forward and backward applying at 45 psi to 90 psi. Folicur applications are a suppression.....not a control. Timing is critical at Feekes 10.51 or early bloom. Dual applications at half rates should be considered since the onset of bloom can vary. It is very important for the seeding to be uniform seed depth with all plants emerging together to assure a better timing event of the Folicur application.
Some rain did fall on the DNSW during the critical bloom period.
Quilt was applied at the full boot stage on 5/27/04. The application was delayed 4 days due to weather.
The soybeans were planted May 27-29 into the DNSW with a Deere planter, 3 point mounted.
Roundup was applied prior to planting of DNSW in early March....no in crop weed control was applied.
The Roundup Harvest label was applied very timely. The rate was 40 ounces per acre on July 11th. No sprout damage was observed. The Roundup application was delayed 5 days because of rain. The pictures show the end of harvest after the mature crop had received one or two rainstorms of about 1/2" each. We think the Roundup Harvest label may have reduced sprout in the head. Harvest began July 19 to 21 followed by a rainy period....and completion of harvest July 26. Harvest was about 10 days behind winter wheat harvest.
The timing of nutrients applied side dress was very key in producing high proteins. Proper irrigation also improved nutrient efficiency.
Over irrigation was avoided to hold the nitrogen in the upper two feet of soil. The placed N as NH3 remained ammonic state about 6 weeks longer due to the Thio-Sul placement in the band with APP. This was tested by UNL and Dr. John Clapp.
Supplemental irrigation was practiced.....The fields were managed in manner that assured full holding capacity to 3 feet up to bloom. No irrigation occurred in the critical bloom period. One irrigation occurred after the bloom period to support the soybean growth under the DNSW canopy.
One irrigation of .5 inch occurred in March to improve germination after seeding. Two applications of 1 inch each were made in April. No irrigation occurred in the bloom period. After the bloom period on June 7 th 1 inch of irrigation was added to support the soybeans. A total of 9.5 inches of rain fell during the growing period. A total of 14 inches was applied or fell from the sky. About 4 to 6 inches estimated was stored in the top 3 feet of soil. The crop did receive rain during the bloom period.
Conclusions based on observation, testing, and comments from experienced spring wheat producers and scientists.
1. Rod Row samples and tissue samples indicated high yield and high protein potential. Actually rod row samples indicated too much yield to produce high protein in relation to the fertility applied. This indicated very high nutrient efficiency due to the side dress application of TAPPS or NH3, APP/ATS.
2. The Ortho Ratio appears correct for protein....The N rate may need to be reviewed as the yield goals are raised to 100 bu./A.
3. More seed rows will be added to raise the seeding rate. A solid 10" seed row area is planned by using the Kile opener or a third opener between the 10" rows.
4. Timing of nutrients to side dress application of NH3, APP/ATS, no-till with 3 leaf spring wheat allowed much higher nutrient efficiency and thrifty and healthy soybeans stands. The soybeans harvested residual nutrients. Side dressing of DNSW appears to produce high nutrient use efficiency.
5. The Folicur Section 18 label is required along with a double application at half rates to protect anthers and ovaries of each berry. Actual onset of bloom can be varying with each plant. Timing the Folicur application twice at half rate using a special dual boom sprayer may give better results. A purpose built sprayer is required.
6. The Roundup Harvest Label proved very effective and worthwhile. Harvest date and harvest efficiency was greatly improved.
7. In crop weed control should be practiced. However, the weed control will need to occur 3 to 4 weeks ahead of soybeans to avoid damage to the soybeans from residual phenoxy herbicide.
8. Yield goals of 100 bushels per acre will require one pre-plant application of nutrients at 125 N, 55 P, 35 S and one side dress application at 3 to 6 leaf wheat at 75 N, 35 P and 21 S. However another method is being investigated with the Kile opener to band the second side dress application with the drill opener in a single pass. The drill opener will apply the toxic charge of N,P and S.
9. A micro-nutrient package applied in the band of Zn,Cu,B may be tried to improve seed set of the DNSW and Soybeans.
To be determined:
The soybeans continue to show good growth characteristics. No disease problems have surfaced. The plants continue to be healthy and thrifty. Two soybean varieties planted are NK29C9 and Pioneer 93B09. Harvest should occur in about 30 days.
Several reasons why the DNSW/soybeans look better than the Relay Intercrop Hard Red Winter Wheat (HRWW)/soybeans are proposed.
1. The DNSW produced 3 or 5 tillers and was seeded to population. The winter wheat can tiller much more creating more of a canopy and shading the soybeans. The DNSW is very stiff strawed with uniform head height. The DNSW did not elongate as much as the HRWW.
2. The DNSW was fertilized with Anhydrous Ammonia, APP/ATS banded timely and uniformly with the Exactrix single disc tool bar, no-till. The low CV application banded in the root zone assures high nutrient use efficiency by the spring wheat crop and the soybean crop. The timing of nutrients side dressed was ideal for both crops. The Relay Intercrop Winter wheat in the area was fertilized with nitrate based 28-0-0 top dressed causing the plant to elongate more or to shade the soybeans more. Some of winter wheat in area did lodge. There appears to be an advantage to fertilizing with NH3 since the spring wheat did not lodge, was stiff strawed with an orange straw color (sulfur response) and produced high proteins at 16%.
3. The placed bands of NH3,APP/ATS were accessed by the soybeans after the DNSW had completed nutrient uptake. Thus the beans were not starved for nitrogen and were able to harvest the residual placed NP&S. We have no means to compare to other approaches scientifically. This is a general observation that the soybeans were in better shape immediately following harvest of the DNSW as compared to other fields of HRWW/soybeans in the Relay Intercrop System.
Exactrix, dual product, high speed single disc, no-till, side
dressing tool bar.
The band spacing is15 inch average set at 12/18 spacing for corn side dress and preplant application and 10/20 spacing for side dressing Dark Northern Spring Wheat.
An Exactrix 2KD weigh master applies NH3 using a coriolis mass flow meter which weighs the NH3 as it is applied. Port to port accuracy is less than 1% CV.
Twin 1,000 gallon bottom outlet tanks produce true liquid NH3 flow at temperatures to 0*F.
Twin 300 gallon tractor tanks carry APP/ATS or 10-34-0 and 12-0-0-26S. The nutrients are combined at the opener injection by means of a second Exactrix injection manifold system to form TAPPS.
Nutrients are applied in an Ortho Ratio of 27-12-0-7S in both Corn and Dark Northern Spring Wheat.
Application speeds to 12 to 14 mph are achieved with no-tillage application of nutrients.
Nitrogen efficiency has been improved about 40% in corn production.
Yield increases have been substantial in seed corn production in fact some fields have set record yields. As John would say "The plant is green from the bottom to the top and no pinch rows".
Thio-Sul or ATS keeps the NH4 band in ammonic state 6 weeks longer and provides critical protein building sulfur to the Corn and DNSW.
The Deere belted tractor adds real value for controlled traffic in Ridge-till and keeps compaction to a minimum.